Skip to main content

Full text of "History And Legend In Hyderabad"

See other formats


HISTORY AND LEGEND 

IN 

HYDERABAD 


DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION 
AND PUBLIC RELATIONS, HYDERABAD 



JZ> E G JS B 3S. 

1 Q S 3 




contents 


page 

ADILABAD 3 

ASIFABAn, BOATH, KmWAT, MAHUR 4 

LAKSHETTIPET, ONAKDEO 5 

MANIKOADH, NIRMAL 6 

AURAKGABAX> 7 

AJANTA 9 
ELLORA 1 1 

AHALYA BAI TEMPLE, ANTUR, AURANGABATl CITY AND CAVES 1 3 

BHOKARDAN, DAULATABAD 14 

JALNA, KHULDABAD 16 

PAITHAN 1 7 
PITHALKHORA, SILLOD 19 

BKCR 21 

BHIR CITY 22 

AMBAJOGAI, DHARUR, PURLI 23 

BIDAR 25 

BIDAR FORT 28 
CITY 30 
SUBURBS 32 
SEVEN SPRINGS 34 

HOMNABAD, KALYANI 36 

UDGIR 38 

GULBARGA 39 

CITY 4 1 
ALAND, MALKHED 45 

SAOAR, SHAHPUR 46 

SHORAPUR, YADGIR 47 

HY1>£RABA1> 49 

SECUNDERABAD 66 
GOLCONDA 68 
TANKS 71 

KARIMNAGAR 73 

ECUZURABAD, JAGTIAL, SULTANABAD 74 



page 

IVIAMBOOHISTAGAR 77 

AMEIABAD, GADWAL, JAGCHERLA, M AflBOOKNAGAK 79 

I^£DAK: 81 

KONDAPUR 83 
KOMATUR 84 
MEDAK GITV, PATANGHERU, SANGAREDOV 85 

NALGOjSTUA 87 

gajulibanda 89 
N agueapahad 9{ ) 

PANIGIRI 9 I 

NANDED 93 

HUZUR SAHIB GURDWARA 95 

BHAISA, BILLOLIj KAULAS 96 

KANDAHAR 97 

ISniZAMEABAD 99 

BODHAN, DIGHPALt.l 99 
JANKAMPET, NIZAMABAD GITV i 00 

OSAJANTABAD lOl 

TGI J A PUR 102 

MANKBSAR, NALDRUG, OSMANABAO CIl V, OWSA 103 

P ARENDA, TER I O'l- 

PABBHLANI 107 

AUNDHA, HINGOLI 108 

KAICHUR 109 

AEAMPUR 111 
ANEGUNDI 112 
GABBUR, ITTAGI 113 

KALEUR, KUSHTAGI 114 

ETNGSUGUR, MASKI, MUDGAE 115 

RAIGHUR CITY 116 

WARANGAE 117 

100O-PI1T.AR TEMPER, WARANGAL FORT I 20 
RAMAPPA, EAKNA\'ARAM 1 2 1 

PAKHAE, HASANPARTI, K.AZ1PET, ICHAMMAM 1 22 

MUEUG, KATAGHPUR, WARAl>l-iANNAPET 123 

BMADRACHALAIVI 123 



HISTORY AND LEGEND 

IN 

HYDERABAD 


A 

^^LONG THE STREAM OF TIME, THE REGION BETWEEN THE 
Godavari and the Krishna has always been the home of history and legend. 

Briefly, there have been three main stages in the march of time in the Deccan. The 
prehistoric going back to the Stone Age and even the food-gathering period of the primitive 
man; the protohistoric with its epical richness as depicted in the Ramayam and the Maha- 
hkarata; and finally the historic which, of course, overlaps the protohistoric from days 
preceding the advent of Buddha, 

Perhaps in no other compact region in our country, the three periods are more 
representatively illustrated in stone and plaster, in caves and rocks, in paint and pigment 
and in relics, inscriptions and sites having scenic associations with ancient glory. 

Primitive artifacts, megalithic tombs and terracotta figurines take us thousands of 
years back from the age of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, The land of the three lingas, 
Telingana (trilingana), and its numerous associations with the Ramayam link us up inti- 
mately with the protohistoric period. The discoveries at Maski, the Asokan inscriptions 
and Ajanta and Ellora portray the greatness of the Buddhistic period, while many arch- 
aeological monuments tell of the great days of the Andhras, including those of the last of 
the Andhras, the Kakatiyas. 

Then come the massive footprints left behind by the Muslim conqueron from 
Muhammad Tughlaq right down to the Moghuls, and the Vijayanagar interlude which 
has its own conspicuous place in the annals of the Deccan. 

All this living past is there not merely for the delight of the archaeologist, the anti- 
quarian and the historian, but also for all those who take pride in our rich cultural herit- 
age, yet how few can claim to have even heard of them, except perhaps of Ajanta and 
EUora. 

Space and time prevent a detailed description of aJl the places of interest and nearly 
5,000 monuments which embellish the Deccan, but it is hoped that this slim, volume will 



2 


make up for the singular lack of any comprehensive publication, as well as serve as a guide 
to visitors, tourists and enthusiasts. 

For practical reasons the treatment here is district- wise. This would seem to put 
into background the most important places, but the visitor and the sight-seer would be 
well-advised to consult the State’s- tourist organization, which, incidently, happens to be 
included in the Department of Information and Public Relations, Hyderabad, before 
drawing up an itinerary. 

While railways and buses can take the visitor almost anywhere in the State, the 
question of accommodation and facilities cannot be answered here for want of relevant 
data, but with pre-planning it is always possible to arrange for both if only the proper 
quarters are contacted. In most places there are traveller’s bungalows and similar 
places for staying overnight if necessary. In many cases it is possible to visit a site and 
return to the district headquarters within the day, where there is rarely any serious lack of 
hotel or other accommodation for the visitor. 



ADILABAD 


T 

HE district of Adilabad is 7,000 square miles in area and contains some of the best 
forests in the State. It is bounded on the north, east and west by the river Penganga; 
which during its course assumes the name of Wardha and Pranhita until it meets the 
Godavari, which forms the southern boundary of the district, near Chinnur. The centre 
of the district is characterized by a plateau containing hill ranges which reach a height of 
2,000 feet in some places. These uplands cover nearly half the area of the district and 
are the home of the well-known tribe of Rajgonds and the lesser known sub*^ tribes of 
Kolams, Thottis, Naikpods and Pradhans. 

Historically, the northern portions of the district, including the present taluqs of 
Kinwat, Boath, Adilabad, Utnur and Rajura seem to have formed a part of the Berar. 
The taluqs of Sirpur and Asifabad were ruled by the Gonds for - many centuries, while 
the taluqs of Chinnur, Lakshettipet and Nxrmal have been inhabited by Telugu-speaking 
population for a long time. 

Monuments of Yadava rule which lasted up to 1320 can be noticed in the northern 
part of the district in the fort and temples of Mahur, the temple and hot water springs of 
Onakdeo, where one of the earliest Marathi inscriptions on record has been discovered, 
and in the temples at Jainad, Chandur and Rajura. 

The eastern parts of the Adilabad district, comprising the taluqs of Sirpur, Asifabad 
and portions of Rajura and Utnur were under the Gonds since at least the 15th century# 
Sirpur seetns to have been the frontier town of the Kakatiya rulers of Warangal. It 
finds prominent mention in the campaign of Malik Kafur, the general of Alauddin 
Khilji, and was stormed by him on his march to Warangal in 1310 A.D. . The campaign 
has been graphically described by the court-poet Amir Khiisro, who probably accorn* 
panied the army of Malik Kafur in the Deccan. 

Adilabad district has 38 places of interest, few of them renowned or well-known, but 



4 


some of them still deserving a brief note. 


ADILABAD 

The town itself has a fine mosque of the later Muslim period, and a temple where an 
annual fair is held. 


ASIFABAD 

In Asifabad is a 16th century temple constructed in Indo- Aryan style. West of the mili- 
tary quarters archaeological operations have brought to light wood-fossils dating from the 
prehistoric period. 

At Gangapur in Asifabad taluq a 15th century Vaishnavite temple is a notable 
monument. A similar Vaishnavite temple of 17th century can be seen at Jainad in the 
same taluq. 

• At Pangri and Pareshwar there are prehistoric sites where neolithic implements such 
as flakes, cores and similar objects are in a fair state of preservation. An Indo-An^an 
temple dating from the 14th and 16th centuries is a prominent feature at Wakdi. 


BOATH 

In Boath taluq there are prehistoric sites containing neolithic implements at Dhonor, 
Islapur and Kuntla. The Kuntla falls are also worth a visit. 

In Gudi Hatnur there is a fine 17th century temple built in the Hemadpanthi style, 
while cairns and menhirs are relics of prehistoric burial grounds. At Gurg too there is a 
similar ancient cemetery comprising of stone circles. At Prochera there is a waterfall 
near which a site containing neolithic implements has also been discovered. 

Samangadh and Sonagadh have i7th and 18th century forts built in the Muslim 
military architectural style, while at Sonagadh there are prehistoric burial grounds and 
neolithic sites also. 


KINWAT 

MAHUR in Kinwat taluq is the most important historical place in the district. One 
of the most ancient temples in the Deccan is the temple of Renuka Devi at Mahur. 
Renuka De\d figures in the legend of Parasurama, who is said to have slain his mother 
at the bidding of his . fe.thcr. The goddess is also known as Ekaviradevi and figures 
prominently in Hindu mythology. The name «Mathapur*’, from which the word 
Mahur is derived, refers to this goddess only. The place seems to have been important 
from very early times. 

Jhe Pattatraya cult, which received great impetus in the medieval ages through 



5 


the Nathpanthi gosains of Matsyendranath and Gorakhnath cults, and through the 
author of the popular book Gurucharitra, has flourished in Mahur for the last eight 
centuries. Mahur has been described as one of the places where Dattatraya resides. 

The Mahanubhava cult, which grew in Maharashtra in the 13th century A.D. as a 
parallel to the Bhagavata cult, looked upon Mahur as one of its most important centres. 
Mahur came to be associated with many Mahanubhava saints who have enriched the 
spiritual and literary life of Maharashtra during and immediately after the period of the 
Yadava rulers of Devagiri. Even now there is a well-known Mahanubhava monastery 
at Mahur which draws people of that sect from far and near. The temple is 184 feet 
square and 54 feet high. 

The gosains from the north established themselves in Mahur about five centuries ago. 
The founder of the Mahur monasteries of gosains, Sidhanath, seems to have flourished in 
the 14th century. There is a big temple known as Shikhar dedicated to Dattatraya 
under the management of gosain jagirdars of the place. Documents pertaining 
to grants, attributed to Aurangzeb and dating from 1696 A.D., are to be seen 
at Mahur in the custody of the gosains. West of Mahur, at the foot of a hill, are 
the rock-cut temples of Pandolena of distinct Brahminical style dating from 7tli to 9th 
centuries. 

Besides the temples of Dattatraya and Shikhar, Mahur has a very ancient fort which 
has figured prominently in history. It seems to have been originally constructed by the 
Yadava rulers, but in the disturbed periods following it was held by the local chieftains 
until it fell to the Bahmani rulers in 1420 A.D. Mahur remained the headquarters of 
the province of Berar under the Bahmanis, and later on, when the local dynasty of I mad 
Shahis, established itself in Berar, it became their principal military stronghold. The 
place passed to the Moghuls along with the province of Berar in 1592 A.D. Local tradi- 
tion still points to the ruins of a palace where Shah Jahan and his consort took refuge 
from the forces of Jehangir. These ultimately became a part of the State in 1724. 
Other features in Mahur are the Idgah, the Dargah of Sonapir and the Mavali tank. 

At ONAKDEO there are hot springs whose sulphur waters have medicinal value. 
Popular legend associates them with Rishi Sarabhanga whose hermitage might have 
been near here. An annual jatra is held here in November. 

The 1 8th century Dargah of Hazrat Sadruddin and Hazrat Badruddin is a notable 
feature of Saihapur, while at Timurni the Dargah of Shah Lutfullah resembles a typical 
Pathan tomb. 


LAKSHETTIPET 

Here 13th and 14th century fortifications typify Hindu military architecture of the 



6 


later period. 


MANIKGADH 

The strong fortress of Manikgadh, nearly 1,700 feet high, and situated in inaccessible 
territory, was held by the Gond Rajas of Chanda whose sway extended in the north to 
Nagpur and in the south nearly upto the Godavari. They maintained their indepen- 
dence till the end of the 16th century when they began to give nominal allegiance to the 
I^Ioghuls, and then to the Marathas, to whom tliey finally succumbed in 1751 and lost the 
kingdom of Chanda. 

Tradition asserts that the Gond rulers began their rule in the 9th century, though 
this seems to have been based mainly on hearsay. Sirpur was their capital until the 
Rajas transferred it to Chanda in the 16th century. 

Today the Gonds are one of the principal tribes of Central India and retain to the 
full their tribal customs, traditions and manners. Every year Gonds . and other tribes 
gather in their thousands at the annual fail' at Keslapur, a sylvan village. 


NIRMAL 

In southern Adilabad, the town of Nirmal, is of historic interest. It seems to have 
been held originally by the Velmas until it was taken in the latter part of the Ifitli 
century by Alirza Ibrahim Baig Zafruddaula, also known as Dhaunsa, a general of the 
Second Nizam. This nobleman reconstructed the present fortress of Nirmal, tlac architects 
being Frenchmen in the Nizam’s service. The Saradmahal, which is now used , as a 
travellers’ bungalow, is on the site of the old buildings constructed by this chieXtain. 
After his death his sons rebelled against the Nizam, who had to max'ch upon iMirmal 
and reduce the fort. The estate was then confiscated and Nirmal became a part ol* the 
State. . . 

Other places worth seeing in Nirmal are the Mahadeo temple and its sculptures, 
the 17th century Jami Masjid, and Ibrahimbagh with its gardens and fountains. , 

Today Nirmal is the home of a fine wood-, lacquer and toy industry which has .become 
known even outside India, and a visit to one of these cottage industry factories .is ins- 
tructive. 



AURANGABAD 


M 

^ people have heard of Ajanta and Ellora than of Aurangabad. But the story 

of this historic district on the Bombay border is almost as interesting as these famous mas- 
terpieces in art and architecture. 

The earliest trace of human habitation in this district was discovered in the shape of a 
paleolithic artifact at Tvloongi on the left bank of the Godavari. Antiquities of the Stone 
Age, have been discovered at several places in the district but the regular history begins 
circa 300 B.C., that is, at the beginning of the early Andhra period. Since then man’s 
genius has continuously exerted itself in fathoming the deepest recesses of the human soul. 
These sublime efforts have manifested themselves in monuments at various places, which 
are permeated with a spiritual glow. 

The Pandavas during their exile are said to have wandered into the Aurangabad 
district, and also to have constructed the massive hill fortification of Deogarh (Deogiri, 
Devagiri) , 

The Surpanath hill near Kannad in the district is pointed out as having been the 
residence of Surpanakha whose ears and nose were cut off by Sri Lakshmana. 

The expedition of Alexandar made the Greeks acquainted with India and soon they 
also found the sea route. In those days the Dakshinapatha (Deccan) was under great 
vassals (Mahamandalesvaras), and hereditary land-holders (Poligars), who owed alle- 
giance to the overlords of Tagara and Plithana (Paithan). 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, sent Dionysius into the southern parts of India 
about B.C. 268, and it was then that Tagara became known to the Greeks. It is also 
mentioned by Arrian that on the arrival of the Greeks in the Deccan “ Tagara was the 
metropolis of a large district called Ariaca, and that Tagara and Plithana were the princi- 
pal marts in Dachanabades.” All kinds of merchandise from throughout the Deccan were 
brought to Tagara and thence conveyed on carts to Barygaza, now Broach. Ptolemy 
agrees with Arrian in placing Tagara and Plithana to the north of Godavari, but the 



8 


position of Tagara has not been quite identified^ although attempts have been made to 
fix it near Daulatabad (Deogarh), Bhir, Junagar and Gulbarga, 

Plithana is evidently Paithan, as it was about twenty days journey from, or 230 miles 
south of Broach,* and if Ptolemy’s latitude and longitude be correct, Tagara should be 
87 miles north-east of Paithan, or near Maiker in Berar. 

The more general statements of Arrian and Ptolemy, however, place Tagara ten 
days’ Journey east of Paithan, which would bring it near Nanded on the Godavari. The 
remark in the Periplus that coarse dangaris, and very much fine linen, and muslins of sorts, 
and mallow coloured stuffs, and other merchandise were taken to Tagara from ** parts 
along the coast,” would seem to show that Tagara was also in connection with the Bay of 
Bengal ; and it is known that even as early as the time of Sakya Muni, Kalinga on the east 
coast was noted for the manufacture of fine muslins. 

On the silver screen of Deccan history then flashed the Greeks (Yavanas), Scythians 
(Sakas), and Parthians (Sahs), and the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalachuriyas and 
Yadavas, till we reach 1295 A.D. when Muslims first arrived in the Deccan — ^Aurangabad 
district being almost the very first to feel their presence, 

Ramadeva (Ramachandra) was the last of the independent Yadavas (1271-1310 
A.D,), but his Minister, Hemadpanth, is now more well-known than the king himself. 

Hemadpanth, or Hemadri, was not only the author of many books on Hindu law 
and other subjects, but also the originator of the Hemadpanth! style of temple architecture, 
as typified by numerous Hemadpanth! temples in the State today. 

Alauddin Khiiji was the first to invade, defeating Ramadeva in 1295 A.D. when 
the Yadavas became vassals of the Khlljis. Shankara, the last of his line, rebelled and 
was put to death in 1310. 

The romance of Deval Devi and Khizr Khan, which is the subject of Ashiqa of Amir 
Khusro, occurred during this period and it was also during this period that Deogiri came 
under the sway of the Khiljis, though the fort changed hands several times till 1318 wlien 
it finally became an Imperial stronghold — Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah, Alauddin’s 
successor, himself entering the fort. In JSfuh Sipahr^ Amir Khusro relates some of thts 
incidents of this conquest. 

Aurangabad district was also the scene of the exploits of the famous slave Kafur 
Hazardinari, Alauddin’s favourite who rose to be the Malik Naib of the Khiiji Empire 
and the main power behind the throne. He was murdered in Delhi only 35 days after 
Alauddin’s death. 

The district of Aurangabad twice had the privilege of becoming the seat of a united 
India. The first attempt was made by Muhammad Tughlaq during the first half of 
the 1 4th century, while Aurangzeb spent his last 25 years in the Deccan with Aurangabad 
more or less as the headquarters of his government. 

Aurangabad has been the home of Maratha saints and litterateurs, who initiated 
great spiritual and literary movements. Notable authors whose works to this day illu- 
minate t|ie pages of Indian literature are many. Among the very first was Salivahana 



whose Kosha was a dictionary consisting 4,00,000 kathas, or Prakrit verses, in compiling 
which he had the assistance of no less than six authors. Among Salivahana*s 
other works are Salivahana Saptasati^ Salihotra and Gajachikitsa, 

Paithan was once a seat of Sanskrit learning. Here also lived for a time the famous 
Maratha saint Gnaneshwar, torch-bearer of a great religious message, who attacked 
the snobbery of Sanskrit pundits and wrote a commentary on Srimad Bhagwad Gita^ 
which has become a masterpiece of Marathi literature. By carrying to the common 
man religious literature that was until then locked up in classic Sanskrit, he created a 
revolution. 

Another Maratha saint was Eknath. He was the first Maratha social reformer to 
launch an open attack on untouchability. Eknath’s grandson, Mukteshwar, was also 
a great Marathi poet. 

In the latter days, Sri Ramdas Swami (1608-1681 A.D.) also travelled in the 
district. He was the spiritual guru of Shivaji, and in Saka 1571 (A.D. 1649) Shivaji 
Chatrapati became his disciple. During his life-time, Sri Ramdas Swami was consi- 
d<Ted an incarnation of Maruti or Hanuman. He was also a Prakrit writer and his Das 
Bodh^ Sphut Abhang^ the Samos Atmaram and Manachei Slok are well-known. Similarly, 
Amrit Rao (1698-1753) is noted for his katav style of writing which consists of padas of 
60 syllables each. Among his well-known books are Draupadi Vastraharan^ Jivadasa^ 
Durvasa Tatra, Ramchandra Varnan, Ganapati Varnan, and a novel Druvacharita, 

Among the Muslim writers were Kazi Shahabuddin Zawali, who was called “ king 
of sages ” by his contemporaries, Shahnawaz Khan Samsamuddaula (1669-1751), the 
author of Ma^athir-uUUmara, and Gulam Ali Khan Azad (born 1704). 

Aurangabad is, and has always been, famous for its attractive textiles, like Jamiwar, 
Mashru and Kamkhab, well-known to connoisseurs since 17th century, 

AJANTA AND ELLORA 

No visitor should leave India without seeing the rock-cut temples of Ajanta and 
Ellora. If he is a lover of the beautiful, the visit will seem to him a pilgrimage, for few 
other sites of past glory enshrine a nobler monument of man’s artistic achievement. 

Ajanta is 65 miles north of Aurangabad city, while Ellora is 18 miles from the city. 
There are excellent facilities for staying in Aurangabad and visiting the two places. Both 
places are too well-known to need any description and the following is only meant as 
hors d^osuvre. 

Though cave-architecture is to be found in various other localities of Hyderabad 
State and in other parts of India, yet nowhere such an admirable combination of archi- 
tecture, sculpture and murals is to be seen in such great abundance and excellence 
as at Ajanta. 

In a beautiful glade circling the Waghara amidst superb scenery are the caves of 
Ajanta consisting of twenty-four monasteries and five temples^ some of which ,are 2,000 



10 


years old. The crescent-shaped rock which overlooks it seems to have attracted the 
fancy of Buddhist monks who selected this site for their cloister, some three centuries after 
Gautama the Buddha (563 B.C. — 4r83 B.C.) had founded their order. For about a 
thousand years, their pious hands chipped with chisel and mallet the living rock, fashioning 
lofty and spacious shrines and monasteries. 

It is noteworthy that the Buddhist rock-hewi monasteries were principally excavated 
along the trade routes, where, like the Christian monasteries of the Middle Ages, they 
ministered to the needs of travellers. In former times Ajanta lay on one of the main 
routes from the north to the kingdom of the south and was known as the “ Gattnvay of 
the Deccan/’ 

This rock-hewn architecture consists mainly of t’wo parts : chaifyas or chapels and 
viharas or monasteries. There are twenty-nine of them including five chaUyas^ the largest 
chamber hardly less spacious than the auditorium of a modeim theatre. Most of these an': 
so constructed that a flood of natural light pours ixito them at some time of the day. Both 
the facade and the inside of these chambers, popularly called caves, are decorated with 
sculptures. On the walls inside are frescoes. The exuberance of sculpture and painting 
leaves an unforgettable impression on the mind. Here Indian art attained the zenith of 
artistic development and revealed a rhythm of life whose robust vitality still amazes us. 
As has been stressed by an English critic, very rarely in the world’s history has there 
come together such true symphony of the three arts — ^painting, sculpture and architecture 
— as is so beautifully harmonised at Ajanta. 

Almost all the walls, ceilings, pillars, etc. of all the caves retain traces of frescoes, 
but Caves I, II, IX, X, XVI and XVII possess a stupendous wealth of frescoes, most of 
which represent scenes from the Jataka-stories of Buddha’s previous births in various 
forms — human, animal, reptile, bird and others. 

The antiquity of these caves and frescoes ranges from the 2nd century B.C. to the 7th 
century A,D. Despite the long intervals which separate these paintings in time, there is 
a unity of conception and design which is truly remarkable. These frescoes draw their 
themes from Buddhist folk-lore and relate the many legends woven round the life of 
Buddha, Though the dominant motif is religious, the paintings in their range and 
treatment are in reality an epic of the life of the people during eight centuries. 

Next to the divine and serene atmosphere which hangs round the figures of Buddha 
and Bodhisattavas, garlands of beautiful womanhood knitted round the figures of rajas, 
noblemen and sages and sprinkled haphazard like flowers in scenes painted all over the 
walls, bear ample testimony to the overflowing passion for woman-worship, as next only 
to the gods. 

The caves are on the second terrace and the 250 feet high perpendicular rock where 
they commence is in the form of a semi-circle. The exquisite workmanship of the past 
masters of the chisel and the easel lends an ecstatic charm to the glorious manifestation 
of Nature in this beautiful place. 



11 


The Ajanta caves contain several figures of foreigners, such as Persians and Bactrians, 
but the most interesting group is in a painting in Cave I representing the Iranian embassy 
from Khusrav II, King of Persia (A.D. 591 to 628) to Pulakesin II (A.D. 609 to 610) of 
Maharashtra, 

Tabari, the Arab historian, gives clear evidence of the close relations between the 
two kings. The date would be about 625 A.D. 

The drinking scenes are copies of a picture by Indian artists of the same Khusrav II 
and his famous queen, Sliirin. 

Cave XVII at Ajanta has a painting of the embassy of Persian king Bahram Gaur 
(A.D. 420-440) to the king of Malwa. 


ELLORA 

About a hundred miles from Ajanta, another crescent-shaped hill was likewise cut to 
make the rock-hewn temples and monasteries of Ellora. Unlike Ajanta, the caves here 
belong to the three great religions of India — Buddism, Jainism and Hinduism. The 
earliest caves — Caves I to XII, belong to the Buddhist religion and range from the 
second century B.G. to 7th ccniury A.D. Of these, Cave* X is the only chaitya at 
Ellora, whereas the remaining eleven caves are viharas^ some of which are even three- 
storeyed. The next in order are the Hindu caves — Nos. XIII to XXIX, which may 
date from the 9th to 12th century A.D. Of this group, Cave XVI, the Kailasa, is 
the largest, most elaborate and a miracle of patient human industry. And, according 
to an inscription carved on it, is an achievement of the Rashtrakuta Prince Krishna 
I, latter half of the 8th century A.D. The main temple is totally detached and is 
situated in the middle of a quadrangular courtyard which is surrounded on three sides 
by rows of sculptured galleries containing mostly subjects and scenes from the Saivaite 
Pantheon, while the fourth or western side has the entrance through a portico. The 
Kailasa temple, 164 ft. in length, 109 ft. in breadth and 96 ft. in height, scooped out of a 
single rock, is lavishly carved and sculptured with life-size animals and images of gods 
and goddesses. No nobler monument exists of Hindu genius, daring and skill. 

Although hewn from the living rock, the Kailasa is intricate in design with ceilings, 
pillars, and galleries full of bas-reliefs. Episodes from the Ramayana and the Maliabharata 
occupy two of the walls. The elephant pediment of the main temple is a remarkable 
work of art in itself. The other caves stretch along the hillside on either side of the Kailasa. 

The third group, which is exclusively of the Jaina Cult, comprises of caves Nos. XXX 
to XXXIV. These caves are interconnected and their architecture and sculpture appa- 
rently show a downward trend when compared with the two former sets. The archi- 
tecture of these caves is a poor imitation of the great Kailasa and is also called Chhota 
Kailasa. The sculptures are mostly those of Jainas and Tirthankaras, and Indra and 
Indranij, with their typical associations, adorn the more important positions in the 



12 


halls and galleries, as such the architecture of these Jaina Caves and their sculptures 
are probably wanting in the all-permeating spirituality, grace and calm of the Buddhist 
caves and the gorgeousness and vigour of the Hindu excavations. 

In almost all the three sets of caves are to be found inscriptions wliich help in dating 
them, and here and there are patches of frescoes which, on account of their poverty of 
imagination and technique, fall far behind the superb murals of Ajanta. 

Perhaps the most striking impression of the amazing works of art at Ellora is to be 
obtained late in the afternoon when the setting sun shines straight into the interiors, and 
gives the rock a brilliant crimson hue, seemingly bringing to life the colossal Buddhas 
carved in the cells at the back of many of the caves. 

Ellora is probably named after a legendary king, Raja Elu, who is said to have 
founded the village and excavated the Kailasa out of gratitude for having been mira- 
culously cured of a disease he was suffering from. The cure is believed to have been 
effected by the waters of a tank near Ahalya Bai’s temple, close to Ellora. The tank is 
even now known as Raja Elu’s tank. 

Both Ajanta and Ellora can be visited from Aurangabad which is on the Central 
Railway, 233 miles from Bombay and 320 miles from Hyderabad-Secunderabad. Visitors 
from Bombay have to change at Manmad on the broad-guage system of the Central 
Railway and from there proceed by the metre-guage train to Aurangabad. Convenient 
connections for important trains can be had at Manmad both on the outward and on tlie 
return journey. Visitors from Hyderabad can leave Hyderabad late in the evening 
and arrive in Aurangabad next morning. An air service also connects Bombay with 
Aurangabad. The State Hotel, Aurangabad, run by the Central Railway, is an excellent 
place to stay. 

Ajanta was known from times immemorial, but unsettled conditions in the Deccan 
precluded popularity as well as proper caretaking. The British came to know of 
Ajanta in 1819, but it was not until Fergusson published his paper on rock-cut 
temples that general interest was fully aroused in 18i3. Subsequently, the Govern- 
ment of India stationed Major Gill at Ajanta who copied a magnificient series of 
frescoes in 1857 which were exhibited at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, London, and 
perished with it in fire in 1866. 

Since then, however, the State has been taking a keen interest in Ajanta and 
Ellora, and from 1920 has taken special sedulous care of both monuments. Professors 
Lorenzo Cecconi and Orsini were employed to repair and renovate the frescoes, 
which work they did with the help of Indian experts. 

Following integration of the State with the Republic of India, both Ajanta and 
Ellora have becomci a charge upon Gk>vernment of India’s Archaeological Depart- 



15 

ment, though the Statens department of Archaeology continues to act as their agent. 


AHALYA BAI TEMPLE 

This temple built by Ahalya Bai in the 13th century is famous for its Jyotirlingam. 
The temple is in Kannad taluq not very far from Ellora. 


ANTUR 

There is an ancient fort at Antur upon the summit of a ghat which projects into Khan- 
desh. Persian inscriptions on pillars^ and in a mosque inside the fort, date from 1591, 
1598, 1616 and 1625 — the Nizamshahi period. 

AURANGABAD CITY 

This city has many interesting features for the sight-seer, unique among them is the 
water-supply system built by Malik Ambar, the founder of the city, in 1610. The Pan- 
chakki or water-mill still exists and is a beauty spot. Some of the 17 original under- 
ground channels are still in use. Close to it are the Dargah of Baba Shah Musafir, the 
spiritual preceptor of Aurangzeb, a mosque and a serai. 

The Naukhanda Palace and Kali Masjid are other constructions dating from 
Malik Ambar’s time. The palace was enlarged and finished by the first Nizam. 
The Shah Gunj Jami Masjid is the principal place of Muslim worship. This mosque 
and the Chowk Masjid were built by Shaista Khan in the reign of the first Nizam, 
Asaf Jah 1. 

Lai Masjid, a later Moghul mosque, is so called because of its red stone architecture. 
Qila Arak is also a Moghul palace, later extended by the Nizams. 

The mausoleum of RabPa Daurani, Aurangzeb’s Queen, is the Taj of the South in 
every respect except architectural greatness, and called Bibi-ka-Maqbara. The mauso- 
leum was designed after the Taj Mahal at Agra, and erected between 1650 and 1657* 
It is situated in a beautiful garden laid out with fountains and cypress trees. Portions 
of the tomb are in pure white marble, the remainder being in beautiful stucco plaster 
with very rich specimens of arabesque. 


AURANGABAD CAVES 

Less than a mile north-west of Bibi-ka-Maqbara arc three sets of Buddhist caves 
dating from the 2nd to 7th century A.D. They represent both the chaitya and vihara 
types, but while some caves have remained imfinished, others have been damaged by 
land-slides. 

The caves may be. generally compared with those of Ajanta in architecture and 



14 


sculpture — although they have almost been stripped of their frescoes by the inclemencies 
of weather. Cave III (vihara) has a carved frieze representing Sutasome Jataka, 
which is more prominent and pronounced here than that in Gave XVII at Ajauta, 
a fresco. Similarly, the t^ro groups of votaries in front of the Buddha in temple III 
are the best specimens of their kind. The sculptures are life-size and full of life. The 
dresses of the figures are scanty and the coiffeurs and contours of the bodies of the 
female figures^ and the matted locks of the male votaries are extremely pleasing and 
realistic. The figure of Padmapani, with eight panels representing Buddhist litany on 
either side of the figure, is superior to any group either at Ajanta and Ellora or any- 
where else in India. Likewise, the dance scene in the same temple, with Tara in 
the middle and three female votaries on either side, may well stand comparison with the 
Nataraja scene in Cave XVI at Ellora. 

Much has been done to repair and conserve these cav^es and to make them accessible 
by constructing a fair-weather road from the Begumpura Darwaza of Aurangabad. /\ 
flight of steps has been constructed from the foot of the hill and a bridle path has been 
made out on the brow of the hill to communicate with all the three sets of caves. 

BHOKARDAN CAVE 

At Bhokardan there is an underground excavation comprising of chambers, shrines and 
a verandah facing a quadrangular court. The sculptures belong to the Vaishnavite cult 
and the cave may be ascribed to the 8th or 9th century A.D. from the characters of the 
carved inscription in its verandah. As the cave has been hewn out on the bank of the 
Kelna, the waters of the river used to cause constant damage to it, but this has been 
checked by the construction of a strong masonry dam which has ensured the safety of the 
cave. There is also a neolithic sire in Bhokardan. 

In the same taluq there are Buddhist caves dating from 6th to 7th century A.D. at 
Ghatotkatch. The Baitalbari fort, also in the Bhokardan taluq, has some remarkable 
fortifications, bastions and inscriptions. 


DAULATABAD 

Daulatabad is Deogiri (Devagiri) of old, and this is where Muhammad Tughlaq set up 
the capital of his Indian Empire after shifting from Delhi. 

The place is celebrated as the capital of the Seunas, more commonly known by their 
assumed name of Yadavas, who rose from the position of feudatories of the Chalukyas to 
that of independent princes. Bhillamma I, who threw off allegiance about 1 187, is said 
by Hemadri to have founded Deogiri. Has grandson, Singhana, acquired practically 
the whole of the Western Chalukyan kingdom. 

Ala-ud-din Khiiji captured the fort in 1294, and this event marks the first invasion 
of the Deccan by the Muslims. The fort was restored to the Raja on hk agreeing 



15 


to pay tribure, but later expeditions were undertaken on account of default. Deogiri 
was occupied by Malik Kafur in 1307 and 1310 , and in 1318 the last raja, Harpal, was 
fla}'ed alive. 

In 1338, Muhammad Tughlaq attempted to transfer his capital from Delhi to Deogiri 
and his unfortunate subjects were forced to migrate to the new seat of government. After a 
period of seventeen years, the citizens were permitted to return to Delhi, but most of the 
exiles were so disconsolate that they preferred to undertake the v^"earisome journey of 
six hundred and ten miles northwards rather than remain in that city. He changed 
■Deogiri to Daulatabad and from here he directed his campaigns against the rajas of 
Warangal. Troubles having broken out in northern India, the king left his new capital to 
suppress them. During his absence, the Muslim governors of the newly acquired provinces 
revolted, and in the confusion which ensued Zafar Khan, the governor of Gulbarga, 
succeeded in capturing Daulata]>ad, which remained in the possession of the Bahmanis until 
1526 when it was taken by the Nizam Shahis, to be again wrested from them by z\kbar. 
After the fall of Ahmadnagar, the Nizam Shahi capital was transferred to Khirki, the 
present Aurangabad, and Daulatabad was retaken to remain in their possession until it 
was captured in 1633 by Shah Jahan’s general. It remained part of the Maghul empire 
until after Aurangzeb’s death, when it came into the possession of Asaf Jah, the first 
Nizam of Hyderabad. 

The fortress is built upon a conical rock, scraped to a height of 150 feet from the 
base. The hill upon which it stands, rises almost perpendicularly from the plain to a 
height of about 2,250 feet above sea level. The outer wall is 2| miles in circumference 
with three lines of fortifications between it and the base of the upper fort. The outer 
wall formerly enclosed the ancient city of Deogiri, but a village is now all that remains. 

The fort has altogether eight gates , and several pieces of ordnance are still to be 
seen on the bastions. 

An interesting feature of the fort is its underground passage, known as the Andheri,” 
cut in the bowels of the rock. Here and there in the dark passage are pitfalls designed to 
throw the uninitiated down into the deep moat below. The end of the passage has been 
provided with a large iron grating on which fire used to be kindled at the time of 
invasion in order to make the passage intolerably hot and smoky for the invader. There 
are some unfinished caves cut under the great rock of the fort which from their mode of 
excavation and carving, appear to be contemporaneous with the Ellora caves — particularly 
those of the Hindu period. 

Besides the fortifications, the chief buildings are the Chand Minar and Chini Mahal. 
The Chand Minar, which is 210 feet high and 70 feet in circumference at the base, was 
erected by Ala-ud-din Bahmani to commemorate his conquest of the fort. The basement 
is 15 feet high, containing twenty-four chambers and the whole pillar was originally 
covered with glazed Persian tiles of much beauty. It is considered as one of the most stri- 
king pieces of Muslim architecture in Southern India. To the south of this, is a small 



16 


mosque, with a Persian inscription giving the date of its erection as 849 Hijri (1445). 
The Chini Mahal, or ‘ china palace, ^ which was once a building o£ great beauty, is 40 
feet to the right of the eighth gate of the fort. It was here that Abul Hasan Tana Shah, 
the last of the Qutb Shahi kings, was imprisoned by Aurangzeb in 1687. 

Very little is left of the buildings of the old Hindu period except, the remains of Kali- 
ka-Deval, the middle portion of which was converted into mosque by Malik Kafur. 
Close to this mosque is the Jami Masjid which has Hindu pillars and lintels. This is said 
to have been constructed by Mubarak Khilji in 1313 A.D. and later on the coronation of 
Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahmani, the first Sultan and founder of the Bahmani Dy- 
nasty, was performed in this mosque in 1347 A.D. Firishta has given a graphic des- 
cription of the ceremony. 

Apart from this, there are a clear water spring, known as the ‘ Kaori Tanka % an 
elephant pool called the Hathi Houz, Janardhan Swami’s Samadhi, and some palaces 
attributed to Shah Jahan and some others to the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar. 

Daulatabad fort is about one mile from the railway station of that name on the 
road to Ellora, but the fort can be conveniently visited from Aurangabad on the trip to 
Ellora caves by road, as there are no cars available at Daulatabad station. 


JALNA 

Jalna has many old buildings dating from the Muslim period but the only protected 
monument in the town is a neolithic site where cores, flakes and similar antiquities were 
discovered. 

Thirty miles from Jalna station is the Assaye battlefield where Wellesley defeated 
the Marathas on the fateful 23rd of September 1803, a turning point in the history of 
British India. The battle may be said to have anticipated the fate of the French armies 
at AVaterloo because the Maratha army was French trained and staffed with Frenchmen, 

Local tradition not only places the founding of the town as far back as the days of 
the Ramayana but also assexts that Shri Rama himself liven here for a time. It is said 
that the town was then named Jan akpur. 

During Akbar’s time Abul Fxzal received the town as a grant and lived licre for a 
time as shown by his correspondence with Prince Danial. 


KHULDABAD 

Khuldabad, four miles %vest of Daulatabad, is a town of tombs and mausoleums and 
here he burned saints, sovereigns and courtiers. Aurangzeb ; Abul Hasan Tana Shah, 
the last king of Golconda ; Ahmad and Burhan Nizam Shahs, Hngs of Ahmednagar ; 
Malik Arnbar ; Prince Azam Shah ; Khan-i-Jahan; Munim Khan; Bani Begum, great- 
grand-daughter of Aurangzeb ; Asaf Jah I, the ^t Nizam ; Nasir Jung Shahecd; and 



17 


saints Zainul Haq, Burhanuddin and Raju Qattal are those whom history has known 
and whose tombs and graves can be seen even today. 

Also in the taluq are two serais built by Aurangzcb, at Fardapur and Ajanta Serai^ 
a Jami Masjid constructed by Nizam I and the Baradari of Salar Jung 1. 


PAITHAN 

Easily accessible too is Paithan, 35 miles south of Aurangabad. It is beautifully situa- 
ted on the north bank of the river Godavari and is looked upon by the Hindus as a sacred 
place. 

According to tradition Paithan was founded by Brahma who, after having created 
the world, selected this spot on the banks of the sacred Godavari, as his residence. 

Brahma is said to have named his abode Patan ( “ flourishing city ), by which 
appellation it continued to be known until the god, becoming jealous of the superior 
attractions of the other holy places which had come into existence after he had estab- 
lished himself at Paithan, changed the name of the place to Pratisthan, a Sanskrit 
term signifying that the city resembled the celestial abode of the gods. 

Fiom this circumstance, it is alleged, the city acquired additional sanctity, which 
enabled it to compete sucessfully with its rivals. These particulars and many others of 
a similar nature are set forth in the Prathisthan Makatmya, a legendary account of the 
origin of ihe city. 

In ancient Pali literature and the records of the Buddhist bhikshus, ‘Patitthana* has 
been mentioned as the southern terminus of the Savatthi-Patitthana trade-route and des- 
cribed as a flourishing town nestling on the banks of the Godavari. Arrian, the Greek 
traveller, has called this town ‘ Pleithan and Ptolemy, the Egyptian geographer and 
astronomer, travelling in India in the first half of the second century A.D. recorded 
that ‘ Baithana ’ was the capital of ‘ Siro Polomaios % Pulumavi II (138-70 B.G.), and 
the author of the Periplus of the Eythrean Sea called the town by the name of 
* Poethana,” while Pliny, the Roman Historian of the first century A.D., pays a high 
tribute to this town by stating that it is ** the glorious capital of the Andhras.*’ 

In one of the inscriptions of the Pithalkhora Caves and also in the Pratisthana Maha^ 
tmya — a legendary account which deals with the events relating to the founding of the 
city — the name of the town is recorded and preserved as ‘ Pratisthana.* In one of 
Asoka’s inscriptions, mention is made of Buddhist missionaries having been sent to the 
‘Petenikas,* which can be no other than the people of Paithan. 

Known to the ancients by various names, and celebrated for exporting textiles, beads 
and onyx stone through Barygaza (modern Broach), the town of Paithan, was the sub- 
capital of the Andhrabhrityas^ a branch of the great Andhra stock. Originally, the 
Andhra kings had their capital at Dhanyakatak (modem Amaravati) near the delta of the 
Krishna but towards the end of the first century A.D. they felt the necessity of having 




BHIR 


F 

AR from the madding crowd, in the picturesque hinterland of Hyderabad, the 
district of Bhir nestles among rivers, ravines and green hills, where at one time railway, 
telegraph and post office were almost unknown, but where amenities of civilization are 
now available. In Purli, traces of prehistoric culture have been discovered and similar 
artifacts probably await any Leonard Woolley or Carter who may undertake a survey. 

According to tradition, Bhir was called Durgavati during the time of the Pan- 
davas and Kurus, and its name was subsequently changed to Balni; but Champavati, 
Vikramaditya’s sister, after capturing it, called it Champavatinagar. Nothing definite 
is known of its history; but it must have been included successively in the kingdoms of 
the Andhras, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and the Yadavas of Deogiri, from whom 
it passed to Muslim kings of Delhi. 

Bhaskaracharya, India’s renowned medieval mathematician and astronomer, and 
author of Lilavati and the Siddkanta Shiromani^ is believed to have made the first reference 
to Bhir. In his works which are dated circa 1 1 14 to 1128 A.D. it is related that Bhas- 
karacharya was bom in Vijjal Vida, in the Sahya range, which isakinto“Beed” or Bhir. 

; . THE TOMB OF THE ROYAL TOOTH 

Bhir definitely appears in history in 1326 A.D., when Muhammad Tughlaq passed 
through it and changed Champavatinagar to Bhir. It is said by Firishta that he lost 
one of his teeth here, which was buried with royal pomp. This tradition is still prevalent 
in Bhir, and a small tower built on a mountainous track at Ranjani, eight miles south- 
east of Bhir town, is pointed out as the tomb of the royal tooth. 

After the Tughlaqs, the town fell successively to the Bahmani, the Nizam Shahi and 
the Adilshahi kingdoms, and eventually the Moghuls captured Bhir in 1635, During the 
Asaf Jahi period the boundaries of the Suba were always shifting, while great portions 



22 


passed into the hands of the Marathas. 

The battle of Rakshasbhuvan took place in the Bhir district in 1763, on the bank 
of the Godavari, about 70 miles north-west of Bhir, where Nawab Nizam Ali Khan 
was defeated by Raghunath Rao and Madhav Rao and though Vithal Sunder, llte Prime 
Minister, and Vinayakdas, his nephew, were killed the incendiarism of Nizam Ali 
Khan at Poona was partly requited. 

Another historical significance which attaches to Bhir district is tliat itw^as tiu* i>irih 
place of Devi Ahalya Bai, who was born circa 1725 at Cliondhe. Her father, jMnukoje<* 
Scindia, was a patel of the place. Devi Ahalya Bai was born in th(' Stat<" but tIu* 
perfume of her creative, constructive and artistic career has permeated the whoU; world 
to this day. 

Bhir district has offered a fertile field for the free play of poetic genius in Marathi 
literature. Nine poets of the first rank were born in the district, of whom Mukund Raj 
and Dasopant are of immortal fame. Mukund Raj was looked upon as the oldest poet in 
Marathi before the discovery of the treasures of the Mahanubhavi literature. His literary 
brocades are woven out of the warp and woof of philosophy and poctr^^ The Vmk 
SindhUy Paramarnrifa 2 indi the Panchi Karana are some of his outstanding creations. 
The samadbi of Mukund Raj is at Ambajogai, in a lovely gieu which resonates with tin* 
sweet music of cooing birds and a babbling brook. 

Dasopant is the most prolific writer in Marathi, almost unexcelled by any other 
contemporary, irrespective of language. He also flourished in Ambajogai between 1550 
and 1615 A.D. He was a profound scholar of philosophy as revealed in Srimad Bhagwad 
Gita. He wrote volumes of commentary. A fragment of his works which has been 
published covers 1,080 pages, but the MS could fill 15,000 printed pages. As he could 
not obtain paper he wrote on pasodi ’’ — thick khaddar cloth. One such piece is in 
an excellent condition of preservation and measures 24 by 2.J cubits. Lovers of art 
and literature should see that this precious memento is not lost. Dasopant preached 
that activism, Karma Yoga, ’’ was the keynote of the Gita^ and anticipated Lokmanya 
Tilak centuries ago. 

BHIR CITY 

Two temples* in this city, the Khahqah and the Khandeshwari Deval, are among 
the many notable features of the city. Though the superstructures still stand in lovely 
surroundings, the worshippers have lost regard for them. The main temple has lost 
the images of its deity, styled Kanakeshwar, but it is called Khanqah temple. This 
temple is a beautiful island in a tank almost square in plan, and with a fine parapet 
of chiselled masonry on one side. The temple is approached by a causeway of solid 62 
feet masonry. The whole scene portrays the high sense of beauty and cultural values 
of medieval times. 

The other temple, known as Khandeshwari Deval, is perched on an eminence 



23 


200 feet away from the town. The original image is missing and a detached sculpture of 
Mhalsa and Khandoba is placed as a deputy for worship. The salient features of the 
temple are the two dipdans Avhich rise to 45 feet. These towers are built on square bases. 
Their girth above the square basement is over 48 feet while at the top they taper up to 
28 feet. 

Among the other monuments of interest are the dargah of Pir Bala Shah, a mile 
and half from the town towards Patoda, which was built in 1778, and the Jami Masjid 
which is in the centre of the town. The masjid has an inscription indicating that it was 
constructed in 1660 A.D. The dargahs of Shahinshah Wali and Mansur Shah are also 
important shrines. 

The water system of Bhir, like all other historical places in the Deccan such as Aurang- 
abad, Poona and Satara, has a khazana baoli or a reser\"oir tank from which pipes were 
introduced in the town. 

Road Transport buses running from Jalna, Aurangabad, and Yarmala via Ambajogai 
have made Bhir accessible. 


AMBAJOGAI-MOMINABAD 

This is a twin city with the river Jivanti in between, and the town of Amba on the 
northern bank. 

The Pancham Jainas of Amba are said to be the descendants of a feudatory of the 
Chalukyas, and are now represented by tlie Pancham Lingayats, In one of the bastions 
of the town is an old temple, built during the reign of Singhana, the Yadava king of 
Deogiri, which contains an inscription dated 1240. A number of ruined cave-temples, 
both Brahmanical and Jaina, are situated in the vicinity. 

Most important is the temple of Ambajogai, on the bank of the Jivanti, which consists 
of a small pavillion in the middle of a courtyard, and a great hall 90 feet by 45 cut in the 
rock. It is supported by four rows of pillars. 

The sarnadhi of Mukund Raj, the Marathi poet, is also located here. 


DHARUR 

A fort built by Ahmadnagar kings and a mosque built in the Hindu style of archi- 
tecture are prominent features here. The mosque was built by one of Muhammad 
Tughlaq’.s generals. 

PURLI 

Purli is the seat of a Swayambhu Jyotirlinga, self-created luminous phallus of Siva. 
There are two others : one at Aundha in Parbhani, and the other at Verul in Aurangabad. 
In the whole of India there are 12 such Jyotirlingas, those at Kasi and Rameshwar being 
the most prominent ones. The main temple was constructed by Devi Ahalya Bai, and an 
inscription on the silver leaf of the door bears testimony to this. At one time Purli was 
the centre of Brahminic learning. 




BIDAR 


V 

▼ IDHARBHA of Mahabharata fame is the Bidar of today. The great epic relates 
how King Nala, of Malwa, came to woo Damayanti the beautiful, the daughter of Raja 
Bhim Sen of Vidharbha. Faizi, Akbar’s poet laureate, has rendered the romance in im- 
mortal Persian. The Mahabharata also sings of Sri Krishna and His love for the sister 
of Raja Rukma, another King of Vidharbha. This princess renounced the world and 
followed Krishna to the forest of Bhatkuli. And as one glides down the stream of time 
one sees again the “ Sweet-voiced ” Peri Chehreh of Bidar winning over Prince Alauddin 
from his consort, Malikai-Jehan. 

Modern investigations in epigraphy and numismatics have proved conclusively 
that the ancient kingdom of Vidharbha, which is mentioned repeatedly in early Sanskrit 
literature, corresponded with Berar and Khandesh, but the name, curiously enough, sur- 
vives in Bidar, which may have been an important town. 

Kalyani the capital of the later Chalukyas is a historic place in Bidar district. Bil- 
hana, the great Sanskrit scholar, has in his inimitable Vikramadeva Charitra immortalized 
Vikramaditya’s reign. The glory of Kalyani in his reign is recorded in the following 
neswara : There has not been, there is not and there will not be on the surface of the 

earth a city like Kalyana.’* 

The later Chalukyas (974 to 1190 A.D.') were the last to rule a unified Deccan and 
the disintegration which followed upon their collapse has lasted to this day. The 
Yadavas of Deogiri and the Kakatiyas of Warangal were the first to revolt against the 
Chalukyas and become independent. In the later part of the 12th century so weak had 
the Chalukyas become that Bijjala the Kalachuri, a soldier of fortune, usurped the throne 
and set himself up as a ruler at Kalyani, the Chalukyan capital. 

Firishta and Muhammad Salih both described Bidar as the seat of the government of 
the Raes of the Deccan, but their infoi-mation seems to have been based merely on tradi- 
tion, and probably what they mean is that Bidar was a flourishing provincial seat when it 



26 


was besieged and captured by Muhammad Tughlaq, then Prince Jauna Khan, in 1322 
A.D. Genarally speaking, the history of Bidar begins with the Muslim conquest of 
the Deccan, and lasts till it was finally captured by the hosts of Aurangzeb. 

Bidar is a place to delight the heart of the poet and artist, as well as the archaeologist. 
There is something about the red walls and cactus-covered ruins, which makes a strong 
appeal to the aesthetic sense, while at the same time conjuring up visions of a romantic 
past. The poetry which seems to express the spirit of the place in the most appropriate 
language is that of Omar Khayyam : 

Think I in this battered caravanserai^ 

Whose doorways are alternate night and day^ 

How sultan after sultan^ in his pomp^ 

Abode his hour or so^ and went his way. 

Fifteen kings ruled at Bidar, and among them were rulers of every type familiar to the 
reader of eastern literature. The righteous ruler, the cruel tyrant, the valiant leader, 
and the decadent weakling, all have their place in the annals of the Bahmani and the 
Baridi dynasties. 


BAHMANI KINGDOM 

In 1345 the centurians of the Tughlaq army raised the standard of revolt first in Gujerat 
and then in the Deccan, while Kanhayya Naik declared himself independent in Warangal 
in 1346. Muhammad Tughlaq’s generals were unable to quell the rebellion in Daulat- 
abad despite the changing fortunes of warfare, and ultimately a centurian Hasan, entitled 
Zafar Khan, marched upon Daulatabad after reducing Bidar and set himself up as Abul 
Muzaffar Alauddin Bahman Shah Hasan Gangu. Thus was launched into history the 
famous Bahmani dynasty which lasted from 13 1-7 to 1525. 

The dynastic title Bahmani is of controversial origin. According to Firishta, “ it has 
been asserted that he ( Ala-ud-Din ) was descended from Bahman, one of the ancient kings 
of Persia, and I, the author, have even seen a pedigree of him so derived in the royal library 
of Ahmudnuggur, but it was probably only framed after his accession to the throne, by 
flatterers and poets, for I believe his origin was too obscure to admit of its being traced. 
The application of Bahmuny he certainly took out of compliment to his master, Gungoo, 
the Brahmin, a word often pronounced Bahman. The king himself was by birth an 
Afghan.’* 

Gangu was a Brahmin astrologer due to whose recommendation Hasan, his servant, 
was taken into the Imperial Army by Muhammad Tughlaq. 

The Cambridge History of India, however, asserts that this version is absurd and that 
Alauddin Hasan claimed descent from the Iranian hero Bahman, son of Isfandyar, as 
shown by recently found inscriptions. 

Bahman Shah made Gulbarga his capital but in 1423 the ninth of the Bahmanis, 



27 


Ahmad Shah Wall, changed the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar, According to Dr Ghu- 
1am Yazdani, “ historians have given various reasons for the transfer of the capital from 
Gulbarga, among which the old Indian tale of the hunt of a fox by dogs and the extra- 
ordinary courage of the latter also occurs. This tale is not worthy of consideration, for it 
had been told by Indian writers in connection with the foundation of other ancient towns. 
The real reasons for the choice of Bidar were its central position in the kingdom, its natural 
defences, and its invigorating climate. The three principal divisions of the Deccan — 
Telingana, the Carnatic and Maharashtra — converge towards Bidar; and the situation of 
the city on the brink of a plateau about two hundred feet above the adjoining plains would 
have made it difficult to attack in those days. The perennial springs jand the abundance 
of verdure and fruit trees, which are still the attractive features of Bidar, must have further 
influenced the king in preferring it to Gulbarga for the seat of his government.” Thus 
Bidar soon became a great and flourishing capital. 


THE BARID SHAHIS 

By 1492, the Bahmani empire disintegrated into the kingdoms of Ahmadnagar, Berar 
and Bijapur, whose Governors became independent and founded the Nizam Shahi, the 
Imad Shahi and the Adil Shahi dynasties, while Qasim Barid, a Bahmani Minister, 
set himself up as the ruler in defiance of the helpless Mahmud Shah Bahmani and his 
successors — the nominal kings. Thus came the Barid Shahis of Bidar. Ali Barid was 
the first of the dynasty to become Shah formally in 1549. 

In 1619 Ibrahim Adil Shah II annexed Bidar to the Adil Shahi kingdom and ended 
the Barid Shahi rule. Bidar remained a part of the Adil Shahi kingdom till 1656. In 
1656, Aurangzeb captured Bidar in 21 . days. It continued to be under the Moghuls till 
Nizam I founded the Asafia kingdom. 

Qasim Barid was a Turk from Georgia, who was brought to the Deccan as a young 
boy by Khwaja Shihabuddin Ali Yazdi and given in service to Muhammad Shah Bah- 
mani III. He was an expert in handwriting* and also played well on musical instruments. 

Ali Barid, the third of the line, was so cunning that historians have styled him * the 
Fox of the Deccan ’ — Rubah-e-Deccan. 


CITY OF A THOUSAND LEGEND 

Around Bidar have grown legends of kings, saints and jinns as could be expected 
for even though the saint and the king were very different types of individuals, yet both 
played an essential role in the same cultural complex. Nearly all Bidar legends contain 
references to some holy man who appeared at crucial moments to deliver u message of 
inspiration or to prophesy the downfall of the wicked and the victory of the righteous. 
The influence of these saints continued after their death, for the tombs of holy men 



28 


provide places of w'orship, second only in importance to the mosque. 

Every^vhere it is remarkable that the functional significance of the tombs and mosques 
is still alive and active^ while the ** secular ” architecture reminds one of some beautiful 
piece of medieval armour^ in its remoteness from the conditions of life. But to the average 
fifteenth century inhabitant of Bidar^ the fortifications and palaces must have seemed 
far more exciting than the religious buildings. 

Most beautiful of all Bidar tombs is that of Ahmad Wali. In this building, Persian 
designs of great loveliness are crowded into every available space of wall and ceiling, 
while inscriptions in gold and precious stones gleam out from a blue and vermilion 
background, conveying to those who can decipher them glimpses of Sufic philosophy 
and the mysticism of Islam. 

In this connection it is significant that the Sufic inscriptions which line the walls and 
ceiling are expressions of a philosophy which bears a very close resemblance to ^'Bhakti.” 
The tomb of Ahmad Shah is an interesting example of the sacred spot whose mana ” 
is so strong that it overcomes the ordinary religious differences and draws people together 
in a common desire to worship. 

Most significant is the attempt to forge a common Indo-Muslim culture, for though 
the architectural inspiration undoubtedly came from Iran, many features do integrate 
Indian motifs with the Iranian and the Arab. 

Conspicuous is the use of the Swastika as an ornament in the tomb of Ahmad Shah 
Wali and the audience hall in the fort. On the southern wall of Ahmad Shah Wall’s tomb 
is a large black calligraphic device in ^vhich the two names of the Prophet, Muhammad 
and Ahmad, have been inscribed in the form of a beautiful Swastika. 

In the audience hall, ‘Ali, the name of the Prophet’s cousin and the fourth Caliph, is 
similarly made up into another Swastika on the tiles. 

In such a city of saints and Jinns ” one is not surprised to find that the tombs of the 
wicked kings, Humayun the tyrant, and Muhammad Shah III, who murdered his inno- 
cent old minister, have been destroyed by lightning and lie in heaps of blackened ruin. 
Retribution seems to have acted in Bidar as inevitably as in the old fashioned fairy talc. 


BIDAR FORT 

One fact of historical importance connected with the Bidar fort is that it marks the first 
use of gunpowder in the Deccan. The fort was constructed (1429-32) by Ahmad Shah 
Wali on the site of an old Hindu fort known even now as the Purana Qila. As a result of 
the invasion by Sultan Mahmood Khilji of Malwa fortifications had been destroyed and 
had to be rebuilt during the reign of Nizam Shah Bahmani (1461-3), but it was during the 
reign of Muhammad Shah Bahmani that alterations were probably made to safeguard 
against gunpowder. 

-rThc Foft has a triple moat on the southern side, a double on the north-western and a 



29 


single on the other sides. It has seven gates. Notable palaces and pavilions are Rangin 
Mahal, Chini Mahal, Turkash Mahal, Gagan Mahal, Takht Mahal and the Hall of Audi- 
ence hile the Thousand Cells is a subterranean structure. The Soiah Khamb Mosque 
and the Virasangayya Temple are also conspicuous. A beautiful cistern marks the site 
of the La'l Bagh or Ruby Garden. 

I'he Rangin Mahal is a masterpiece in brick, stone, plaster and wood and is decorated 
with exquisite Persian tile-work and mother-of-pearl inlay. The architecture in various 
coui'ts of the palace belong to both the Bahmani and Baridi periods. 

Turkash Mahal was built for a Turkish wife of some Bahmani king : but here again the 
Baridi kings have left their stamp too. Gagan Mahal, or the heavenly palace, was origin- 
ally built by Bahmani kings and extended by Baridi rulers. The Hall of Audience was also 
called the Jali Mahal on account of screens of trellis-work, traces of which are still found. 
The Takht Mahal was built by Ahmad Shah Wali and is so called because its magnificence 
led the public to consider it the throne room of the Bahmani kings. 

Hazar Kothn\ or thousand cells, are a group of underground rooms. The rooms do 
not number thousand but the designation is based on a tradition that this part of the fort 
was one time honeycombed with underground vaults and secret passages. Evident!)’ 
these were intended to be the escape-valve in case of serious trouble when safety demanded 
flight or concealment. 

The Soiah Khamb Mosque, also known as Zanana Masjid because it is near the 
harem, is so called because of its 16 columns. Originally it was the principal mosque, 
Masjid-e-Jami of Bidar, where State functions of religious character as well as Friday 
prayers were conducted. It \vas here that in 1656 Aurangzeb hastened to have a kkutba 
recited in the name of Shah Jahan as a proclamation of Moghul sovereignty. An inscrip- 
tion found in the vicinity establishes that the mosque was constructed during the reign of 
Sultan Muhammad Bahmani by Qubli Sultani. The mosque ranks among the largest in 
India. 

Virasangayya’s temple is on the eastern side of the Long Gun Bastion which is on the 
tip of a spur. The Long Gun itself is beautifully carved, the patterns representing the 
chain, beads (Rudraksha or Rudra’s eyes), leaves with stalks and birds — an excellent, 
example of Hindu workmanship. The temple has a Saiyite deity, and the western cham- 
ber contains the samadhi of Yirasangayya, a local hero who is said to have been a Lingayal, 

The guard-houses and passages, which once provided shelter for panthers and other 
beasts, have been cleared of the debris of centuries, while excavation work in the fort has 
revealed unexpected subterranean apartments, and a secret passage leading outside the 
city walla. 

An old legend maintains that vast treasures taken from the Hindu kingdom of 
Vijayanagar lie hidden in Bidar fort and it is said that the secret of their hiding place 
remained for gkierations in a certain family of seneschels, which, although ofTered 



30 


large sums of money to reveal the secret, preferred to carry it to the grave. 

THE TOWN 

The town enjoys a picturesque situation on the brink of a plateau which commands the 
plains around. 

Bidar can appropriately be also called ‘ the City of Seven Springs because abun- 
dant water is provided by seven natural springs having a perennial flow. 

Walled, fortified and having five gates, the town has many mosques, tombs, monaster- 
ies and other monuments of note, but it is not possible to describe all of them. The Ghau- 
bara, the Madrasa of Mahmud Gawan, Takht Kirmani, Jami Masjid, the Khass Mahal, 
Cheeta Khana and Ali Bagh, the Mosque of Khalilullah Khan, the tomb of Multani 
Padshah, the Mosque of Khan Jehan Barid, the Haveli of Afzaluddowla are noteworthy 
buildings. Among the monasteries are those of saints and religious leaders such as Nur 
Samnani, Abul Faiz, Waliullah, Ali Husaini, Mahbub Subhani, Makhdum Q^adri and 
Minatullah Bi. Some of these saints have their tombs in the suburbs, which are regarded 
as shrines, 

Bidar is unique in having four old schools of physical or military training. These 
schools are in the four quarters of the city and are called : The Manhiyar Ta’lim or Bangle 
Seller’s school in the north, the Abbas Pansali ki Ta’lim or water miller’s school in the 
south, Noor Khan ki Ta’lim in the east and Siddiq Shah ki Ta’lim in the west. In these 
schools old military exercises, fencing, wrestling and similar subjects were taught. 

The Chaubara is a tower reported to be the stump of the dipdan of a lofty temple, 
but architecturally it is Islamic and resembles the towers of western Asia notably that of 
the great mosque at Samarra. 

The Madrasa of Mahmud Gawan is not only the most imposing building of the 
Bahmani period, but in its plan and architecture it is a unique monument in India. Mah- 
mud Gawan, the founder of the Madrasa, had himself come from Gilan, and as even du- 
ring his stay in the Deccan he was continually in correspondence with eminent personages 
in Persia, it is not unlikely that he brought engineers and craftsmen from that country to 
design this building. The plan, however, for such institutions in Islamic countries had 
become stereotyped in the beginning of the fourteenth century A.D., if not earlier; for the 
Madrasas at Marrakesh, Fez, Rabat and other places in north-west Africa, have almost 
the same plan, although they do not possess either the stately round minarets which existed 
here, or such grand entrances as that which once adorned the eastern facade of the Mad- 
rasa of Bidar. The latter features evidently came into the Deccan from Persia, and a 
striking resemblance may ^e noticed between the plan, the architectural style and the 
decorative detail of this building and those of the Madrasa of Khargird near Meshhed. 
The latter was buflt in A.D. 1444 by order of Abu’l-Muzaffar Khan son of Shahrukh 



31 


Mirza, and the mosaic workers were two artisans from Shiraz. 

The Madrasa of Mahmud Gawan was built in A.D. 1472, that is, twenty-eight years 
after the Madrasa at Khargird, which, according to the authorities who have visited the 
school, in its palmy days was the finest building of its kind in Khurasan. Another school 
which enioyed a high reputation both for the beauty of its architecture and for the high 
standard of its learning, particularly mathematical studies, was Ulugh Beg’s Madrasa at 
Samarqand built in 828 H. (A.D. 1425). According to Firishta, Mahmud Gawan was a 
great scholar and ‘ in Mathematics he had few equals.’ That he was familiar with the 
college of Ulugh Beg at Samarqand is thus extremely likely, and this surmise is strengthen- 
ed when we learn further that Mahmud Gawan ‘ remitted annually valuable prsents to 
several learned men in Khorassan,’ some of whom apparently were on the staff' of Ulugh 
Beg’s College. Mahmud Gawan, under the aegis of the Bahmani kings, who were enthu- 
siastic patrons of learning and architecture, was thus able to found a college at Bidar on 
the same magnificent lines as its prototypes in Khurasan and other Islamic countries, and 
he not only staffed it with eminent divines, philosophers, and scientists, but also equipped 
it with a library of 3,000 valuable manuscripts. 

In 1696, the building suffered great damage from lightning which deprived it of half 
of its front and half of its southern wing. 


GAWAN’S MARTYRDOM 

One of the greatest personalities of the Deccan, Mahmud Gawan suffered a tragic fate. 
After 35 years of distinguished and exceptional service to the Bahmani Kingdom, he was 
cruelly put to death on April 5, 1481, at the ripe age of 78. At that time there were two 
factions, the Deccanis led by Malik Hasan, Miftah the African and others, and the foreig- 
ners among whom was Mahmud Gawan. The Deccani party conspired against Mahmud 
Gawan. 

According to the Cambridge' History : They induced the keeper of his seals, an African, 
to affix his private seal to a blank paper, on which they wrote, above the seal, a letter 
to the Raja of Orissa, informing him that the people of the Deccan were weary of the tyran- 
ny and perpetual drunkenness of their king and urging him to invade the country. The 
paper was read to the king when he was drunk, and he at once sent for Mahmud Gawan, 
who insisted on obeying the summons, notwithstanding the protests of his friends, who 
warned him that mischief was brewing. The king made no inquiries and did not even 
require the production of the messenger with whom the letter was said to have been found, 
but when Mahmud appeared, roughly demanded what was the punishment due to a 
traitor. * Death by the sword,’ replied the minister, confident in his innocence. The 
king then showed him the letter and, having read it, he exclaimed, ‘By God, this is a mani- 
fest forgery! The seal is mine, but the writing is none of mine, and I know nothing of 
the matter.* The king, disregarding his protestations of innocence, rose to leave the hall 



32 


and, as he did so, ordered an African named Jauhar to put him to death. The minister 
knelt down and recited the short symbol of his faith, and cried, as the sword fell, ‘ Praise 
be to God for the blessing of martyrdom!* *’ 

When Muhammad III Lashkari, the King, learnt of the forgery, he gave way to 
paroxysms of grief and remorse and tried to atone for his foul deed. The least he could do 
was to give a splendid burial. The procession was escorted by Prince Mahmud, as he 
himself was unable to accompany the funeral owing to the refusal of the nobles to march 
with him. 

Mahmud Gawan*s tomb is 2-| miles south of Bidar. No monument worthy of his 
rank could be erected, and his remains rest under the shade of some neem trees. But 
it is apt that the date of his execution is given by two chronograms ""the story of the tmjnst 
execution^" and ‘ (he guiltless Mahmud Gawan suffered martyrdom.'' 

Muhammad Lashkari could hardly survive his sin and died in 1482, only a year after 
Galvan’s martyrdom, at the early age of 28 years. 

Apart from his historical achievements, Mahmud Gawan als6 left to posterity, works 
in prose and poetry among which his Riazul Insha, letters, still exists. 

A short distance from the Madrasa towards the fort is a gateway having at present a 
hall. This building is now called the Takht-i-Kirmani, throne of Kirman, on account of 
its containing a couch associated with the saint Khalilullah. Though a Bahmaui struc- 
ture, its columns carry devices copied from temples. The string of Rudraksha-beads 
carved on the border of the arch-head is another Hindu decorative motif while the back 
wall of a landing in the recess of the main arch is decorated with effigies of two tigers- - 
main feature of the gateways of forts in the Deccan and emblematic of Narasimha and 
the Prophet’s son-in-law who is also known as the Lion of God because of his valour. 

The couch is in the middle of the hall and is held in great reverence by the people 
who flock to see it during Muharram. 

Between the Madrasa and ’Takht-i-Kirmani is another building, where the fourth 
Nizam, Nasiruddoulah Bahadur, was born and where his father, Sikander Jah, lived for 
three years. 

The so-called Cheeta Khana, or Leopai’d House, is a structure wiiich belies its name, 
because, from its plan and construction it is evident that it was not built for keeping 
leopards. It is not known how it came to be called Cheeta Kliana. 


SUBURBS 

Bidar’s suburbs are littered with tombs and monuments too numerous to mention. 

Eight Bahmani tombs are grouped at Ashtur a mile and six furlongs east of the town. 
Of these the tombs of Ahmad Shah Wall and others have been already mentioned. 

The tomb of Alauddin Shah II, ,who died in 1436, must have been a magnificent 
building when intact, for such features as have survived show a great improvement in its 



33 


decoration. Aland din was a cultured prince fond of literary pursuits, though weak in 
administration. He built a large hospital at Bidar and endowed lands from whose income 
medicines, food and drink wei'e provided for the sick. He also appointed v^aids and 
hakims to treat patients. Occasionally he personally addressed the Friday congregation 
in the Jami Masjid and was regarded as an orator. 

A comparative study of the Bahmani tombs demonstrates in the clearest manner the 
gradual deterioration of the political power of the dynasty. 


BARIDI TOMBS 

The group of Baridi tombs is about 10 furlongs west of Bidar city. Among them the most 
notable is the tomb of Ali Barid, the third of the line and the first to assume royal titles. 

The word Barid means a courier or messenger, and this office was probably held by 
the forebears of Ali Barid. 

Ali Barid was most powerful of the Baridi kings and also ruled the longest from 1542 
to 1580. He was fond of architecture and he built his own tomb. 

Replete with other architectural features, the- tomb of Ali Barid is said to be one of 
the most proportionate building of its type. About the style of the building, however, 
experts hold different opinions. Some consider it to be a great improvement upon the 
heavy and sombre architecture of the Bahmani tombs, while others find fault with its 
top heavy dome and narrow base. The tomb is, however, beautifully decorated and on 
the walls inside many well-known verses from the Persian poet Attar are inscribed on 
beautiful tiled-panels. 

Numerous other shrines and tombs of saints and sinners are scattered round the walled 
city but it is not possible to describe all of them. Among them, the protected monuments 
are the Kali Masjid, the shrine of Hazrat Khalilullah and Amir Fakhrul-Mulk Gilani’s 
tomb. The Kali Masjid is an elegant Mosque built in dark-grey granite and is quite 
different in style from the local Bahmani and Baridi styles. From a Persian inscription 
inside the Mosque, dated 1604 A.D., it is said to have been built by one Abdur Rahman 
Rahim during the reign of Aurangzeb. 

Hazrat Khalilullah was the spiritual preceptor of Ahmad Shah Wali. The real 
tomb is surrounded by a lofty octagonal enclosure. The entrance of the tomb has a 
beautiful inscription in Naskh carved in prophery. 

Amir FakhruhMulk Gilani’s tomb is on a large stepped platform and belongs to one 
of the ministers of the Bahmani kings and is seen for miles around. 


THE BARBER AND THE DOG 

The tombs of the barber and the dog are probably among the curios of Bidar^s sepulchral 
abundance. 

The barber’s tomb is in the vicinity of the' Idgah; It is a small structure but its ; 



34 


finiAU resemble those of the Tughlaq tombs of Delhi, while the dome is similar to those 
built by the early Sultans of Delhi. Nothing is known about the person buried there, 
and he may or may not have been a barber. 

The tomb of the dog is on the Udgir road, and built in the Baridi style. Firishta in 
the account of Ahmad Shah Wali describes the story of a dog which through its character- 
istic instinct of devotion saved the life of a person, while its master suspecting the animal 
to be disloyal, killed it. The master when he was apprised of the courage of the dog much 
regretted his hasty judgement and built a dome over its grave outside the town of Bidar, 
Firishta further writes that the tomb still exists, but except for the popular tradition men- 
tioned there is no evidence whatever that the present structure is the tomb to which 
Firishta refers to in his work. 


RAN KHAMB 

These are four pillars close to the old Udgir road as one goes from Ibrahim Barid’s tomb 
to that of Qasim Barid II. The distance between the two pairs of pillars is 591 yards 
and the space between the pillars themselves at each end is 1 1 feet nine inches. The 
pillars are seven feet high. 

Apparently they seem to be the goal posts in a polo ground, but some Muslim scho- 
lars have expressed the view that these posts mark the eastern and western limits of the 
sacred grounds in which the Baridi kings are buried. Literally 'Ran Khamb* itself is 
‘pillar of combat.’ 


HABSHI KOT 

Habshi Kot, literally " Abyssinian Fortress,” is a hillock east of the city. It is the legen- 
dary home of buried treasures. According to one legend, a pious young man who used 
to pray in the Kot suddenly became rich through the patronage of an Abyssinian giant. 
According to another story, the people of Bidar see occasionally a gigantic Abyssinian 
rolling and baking cakes of enormous size on the roof of a ruined tomb which, owing to the 
absence of a dome and parapet, resembles a Indian chulla (oven) and tava (iron pan). 

There is no doubt that the place at one time was occupied by Abyssinians in the 
service of Bahmani and Baridi kings, and as there were several revolts in which Abyssin- 
nians took an active part and were afterwards severely punished for their misconduct, it is 
likely that strange stories were set afloat about their fabulous wealth or atrocious character. 
Habshi Kot has several tombs, a mosque and a well or baoli. The tombs seem to have 
been built during both the Bahmani and Baridi periods. 


THE SEVEN SPRINGS 

Bidar has seven natural springs from which water flows perennially. These are named 



35 


as follows : (z) the Aliabad spring, situated some two and half miles to the north-west- of 
Bidar, (ii) the spring of Chamkora Mari situated at a distance of one and half miles from 
Bidar (chamkora is a kind of shrub which is cultivated there), {Hi) spring of Sayyidus 
Sadat, {iv) spring of Farh Bagh, (v) the spring of Shukla Tirath, a mile east of Bidar from 
which pipe lines have been laid to serve the village of Agrar, {vi) the spring of Sheik Nur 
Samnani, one mile from the town of Bidar, and {vii) the Papnasa spring. 

Most of them are pretty and pleasant beauty-spots well worth a picnic. 

From the Aliabad springs, water is fed through underground canals or karez to 
Naubad a pleasant village on the Udgir road, some four miles west of Bidar. The karez 
system was evidently designed by Persian engineers. 

A similar karez was laid out for the Bidar town and fort, and a line of nine man-holes 
from Fateh Darwaza to the moat of the fort can still be traced. Among the people of 
Bidar it is known as Jamuna Mori. 

Sayyidus Sadat is the title of saint Muhammad Hanif, believed to be a native of Gllan 
who came to Deccan during the reign of Ahmad Shah Wali. 

West of the shrine is the spring now named after him because of an inscriptional 
tablet fixed into the wall above the mouth of the spring. The waters of the spring arj 
believed to possess medicinal properties and people, especially credulous women desirous 
of children, flock in large numbers to bathe in the cistern in front of the orifice in the rock- 
wall whence the waters gush out. Actually the waters contain iron and sulphur, and are 
wholesome for drinking. 


FARH BAGH 

Farh Bagh, or the Garden of Joy, is the site of an old Moghul garden laid out by the Moghul 
Governor, Mukhtar Khan, in 1671. It is a mile and a half south-east of Bidar. Here 
water oozes out from the bosom of a rock and the valley below is divided into natural 
terraces. 

A veritable beauty spot, traces of cistern and artificial cascades can still be seen. 
Among these cascades are a dharamshala, a temple with several deities, including the 
images of Ganesha and Nandi, some samadhis and a mosque. The mosque has Persian 
inscriptions which are a masterpiece of the art of calligraphy. The garden with all its 
buildings was made over by the Nizams to the keepers of the Hindu shrine and excepting 
the mosque the place is still in the possession of the pujaris of the temple. 


PAPNASA 

This spring is regarded as sacred, and is a much frequented place of pilgrimage. It can 
be reached from the 87th milestone on the Hyderabad-Udgir road, whence a cart 
track leads to a pleasant grove in which mango and guava trees abound, 

A temple built in recent times houses a number of images and deities which were 



36 


fomierly placed under various trees near the pool. 

The pool is formed by water flowing out of a natural spring in the rock-bed, and 
here people bathe to wash their sins away. 

North of glen is a massive dike built to retain rain-water for irrigation. The tank 
probably dates back to pre-Muslim times. 


KAMTHANA TANK 

The Kakatiya kings were renowned for building tanks for irrigation, and it is quite likely 
that the Kamthana tank with its massive dike was built during their rule. 

Kamthana is a village some six miles south-west of Bidar. Tlie earthwork embank- 
ment, over a mile in length, had several sluices but it appears that they were not used 
properly because the dike seems to have been breached occasinally by the pressure of water 
in the Bahmani period. A Marathi inscription carved in the masonry even today warns 
the people not to allow the water to overflow the embankment. The inscription also 
records that the dam was breached and subsequently repaired by the order of Ibrahim 
,Barid Shah in 1579. 

Here again, Persian engineers later constructed an underground channel from tank 
to a reservoir away towards the north. It is not unlikely that the reservoir was originally 
situated in the middle of a garden. 


PREHISTORIC SITES 

There are a -number of neolithic sites containing artifacts in Bidar city, fort and suburbs. 
In the suburbs the sites are near the Chamkora, the Papnas, the Aliabad and the Sadat 
springs, and behind Bibi Bandagi’s tomb. 

Modem Bidar which, straggles among the ruins of the old town is a lively little place 
famous for the production of a beautiful kind of metal work known as “ Bidri ware,” 
the making of which has been carried on since the days of old Bidar. 


HOMNABAD 

This place is sacred to the memory of another great personality of Bidar-Manik Prabhu. 

Manik Prabhu flourished at Homnabad in the early years of the 19th century. 
Throughout his life he preached the unity of all religions and came to be respected and 
venerated by all communities. Manik Prabhu’s compositions reveal mystical lines. 
His disciples carry on his traditions at Homnabad even today and the Manik Prabhu 
Mutt in that place is a great centre of attraction for Hindus and Muslims throughout the 
year, 


KALYANI 

Kalyani, situated oh the did road from Tuljapur to Hyderabad, is still a town of some 



37 


size. Originally, it was the capital of the Western-later-Chalukyas, and is mentioned in 
na im^Tiption of the Chalukya emperor, Pulekesin, foun dat Bharangi in Mysore State. In 
the micidlc of the 10th century A.D. Malkhed was the capital of the Rashtrakutas who 
intervened between the early and the later Chalukyas and ruled over the Deccan for over 
two centuries. But Tailapa (973*997), the reviver of the Chalukyan rule, made Kalyani 
his capital. In the 1 1th century, during the reign of Somesvara I, Kalyani was “ beauti- 
ful so that it surpassed in splendour all other cities of the earth.*’ 

Apai’t from its place in history, Kalyani enjoys the unique reputation of being the 
birth place of Mitakshara Law. 

AUTHOR OF MITAKSHARA 

Vijnaneshwar, one of the greatest Hindu jurists, flourished in the Chalukyan court 
and gave to the world what is known today as the Mitakshara Law. Mitakshara 
includes personal law which is followed by the vast majority of Hindus, the main excep- 
tion being the province of Bengal, which follows the Dayabhaga Law. 

The Chalukyas were a Scythian race, and derived their origin from one of the four 
classes of Buddhist followers called Chailaka. The Chalukyas claimed their descent from 
Manu through Hariti, and were known as Agnikulas, from their devotion to the worship 
of fire. They were included in the thirty-six races of the Kshaltriyas and belonged to 
the Lunar family. According to tradition, they had fifty-nine predecessors on the throne 
of Ayodhya before they arrived in southern India. Their signet of Varaha or Boar, which 
was used by the Valabhis as well, was adopted after their conversion to Brahmanism; 
and their insignia also included a peacock-fan, an elephant-goad, a golden sceptre, and 
other symbols. On entering the Deccan, they overcame the Kalachuryas, the Rathas 
and the Kadambas. They ruled over Kuntala Desa and Karnata Desa, and their capital 
was Kalyani. The former included Maharashtra, and the latter comprised much of the 
Chola and Ballala kingdoms. The power of the Chalukyas was at its highest in the sixth 
century, from the reign of Pulekesin to the reign of Vikramaditya. Pulekesin is said to have 
conquered Chera, Chola, and Pandya, and to have performed the Aswamedha or horse 
sacrifice, by which he proclaimed his suzeranity from the Ganges (Godavari?) to Ceylon. 
Perhaps this refers to Satyasraja the second Pulekesin, who is known to have defeated 
Harsha Vardhana, the king of Kanoj, and the most powerful monarch in northern India. 

Kuntala Desa stretched from the Narbada on the north to somewhere about the Tunga- 
bhadra on the south, having the Arabian Sea for its border on the west, while it reached 
to the river Godavari and the Eastern Ghats on the N.E. and S.E.” 

In the middle of the 12th century the Chalukyans were ousted by the Kalachuris 
and with the fall of the latter, Kalyani ceased to be a capital. 

A GREAT REFORMER 

Basava, the greatest social and religious reformer of medieval Deccan, was Bijjala’s 
Prime ^Minister, and he preached a religion which protested against the narrow restric 



38 


tions of‘ caste, and tlie snoberiy of the upper classes. He insisted on the worship of 
one God, Siva, and man’s complete surrender to the deity. His was truly a protes- 
tant religion aiming at unity of all classes in a monotheistic creed. 

Basava’s creed attracted thousands of followers who are known as the Lingayats and 
Veerashaivas. During his ovvn life time Basava had to fight against the prejudices and 
passions of his countiymen and had to leave Kalyani following what was really a revolu- 
tion which ended the Kalachuri interlude. 

The Lingayats, who are most numerous in the Karnatak country, are in reality the 
spearheads of the reformist movement among the Hindus and are today a great force in 
the life of the Karnatak country. Kannada literature has been greatly enriched by the 
devotional and philosophical contributions of Lingayat saints and scholars. Their 
contribution known as the Vachana literature occupies a conspicuous place in the Kannada 
language. 

According to the two inscriptions of Muhammad Tughlaq in the fort of Kalyani the 
place was included in the territory annexed to the Sultanate of Dslhi, coiiiequeit o.i the 
fall of Deogiri of the Yadavas, and was later transferred to the Bahmani Dominions. 

The Bahmanis rebuilt the old Hindu fort at Kalyani to suit their warfare based on 
gunpowder. On the splitting up of that dynasty Kalyani became part of the Baridi 
territory, which had Bidar for its capital, but it was soon taken over by the Adil Shahis of 
Bijapur who, according to the inscriptions carved on the walls of the fort, made important 
additions to its defences. 

After the conquest of Bijapur Aurangzeb’s army plundered Kalyani and it was in- 
cluded as a district of the Suba of Bidar in the Moghul Empire. 


UDGIR 

Udgir is a walled town with a strong citadel and is memorable on account of a great 
battle fought between the Marathas and the first Nizam, the founder of the present 
dynasty. In 1760 the Maratha army numbering nearly 60,000 attacked the Nizam and 
in spite of the brave attempts of the latter defeated him. A treaty was concluded after 
this battle according to which the Nizam had to part with the greater part of his 
territory. 

According to the auther of HadiqaiuL ^Alam, this treaty concluded ‘‘ a peace preg- 
nant with a thousand mischief. ” 

Udgir Fort and Bagh-i-Husn are of Bahmani origin. They were rebuilt during 
the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb and have Persian inscriptions to that effect. 
The inscriptions range from 1576 to 1805 A.D. 

During the wars between the Imperialists and Bijapuris Udgir, which was then 
one of the strongest forts in the Bijapur Kingdom, was frequently besieged. The last 
mention of it occurs in 1635, w^hen it surrendered to Shah Jahan’s commander-in-chief 
after a siege of some duration. 



GULBARGA 


c 

ACRED to the memory of great saints and religious leaders who are universally vene- 
rated by Hindus and Muslims alike, Gulbarga is perhaps the “ holiest ” of Hydera- 
bad’s districts. While other districts may be famed for archaeology, architecture, art, 
industry or history, Gulbarga has inherited an unrivalled tradition of spiritual glory. 

Here lies buried Jayatirtha, the celebrated commentator on Sri Madhava’s 
teachings. 

And the eternal footprints which great saints like Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz, 
Shri Sharana Basaweshwara have left on the sands of time continue to illumine the path of 
salvation for hundreds of thousands of devoted pilgrims to this day. 

As one looks back upon the tapestry of time, Gulbarga district stands out of the 
mists of history as a province of consequence from very ancient times. Although there 
are veiled references to this region in the Ramyana, it does not appear in history until 
750 A.D. when the warlike Rashtrakutas established themselves in the Deccan over the 
ashes of the Chalukyan empire. The Rashtrakutas were the chieftains of Lattalur, the 
Latur of today, and they ruled the Deccan from Manyakheta, which survives today at 
Malkhed, Gulbarga district. 

According to contemporary literature Manyakheta was a fair and prosperous city 
and the Rashtrakuta empire in its golden days extended all over the Deccan including 
central India, southern Gujerat and part of modern Mysore. Krishna, Govinda and 
Amoughravarsha, the most celebrated of Rashtrakuta emperors, were patrons of art and 
learning as soldiers and in their court flourished the earliest Kannada writers, most of 
whom were Jains. The famous Kailasa at EUora is an everlasting memorial to Rashtra- 
kuta greatness. 

Salman Tajir, the famous Arab navigator and trader, who visited the court of Amou- 
ghravarsha, described him as one of the four great monarchs of the world, the other three 
being the Caliph of Baghdad, the Emperor of Constantinople and the Emperor of China. 



40 


About 1000 A,D. Manyakheta was destroyed by the Parmars of Malwa and the power of 
the Rashtrakutas declined. 

They were supplanted by the later Chalukyas, who set themselves up as rulers of the 
Deccan at Kaiyani, another city which still exists in Bidar district. Vikramaditya Ghalu- 
kya, was the most celebrated of his line, and it was in his court that the Mitakshara La^v 
can be said to have originated. 

In 1310 A.D. Gulbarga came under the Khiljis and records are available which 
describe how the Delhi Government appointed Muslim officers at Kalyani, Sagar and 
other places in the district. By 1348 A.D., however, Gulbarga again managed to free 
itself, when Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahmani declared himself independent and made 
Gulbarga his capital. 


JAYATIRTHA AND HIS DUALISM 

The Bahmani period (1347-1525 A.D.) is renowned for two great personalities and 
a book : Jayatirtha and Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz, w^ho were contemporaries, and 
Gurucharitra. It is well known that the reorientation of Indian philosophy in post- 
Buddhist India was accomplished by five great philosophers of south India — Sankara- 
charya and his disciples, Vallabhachary and Nimbarka, and Ramanujam and Sri Madhava, 
who founded the Adwaita, Visishtadwaita, and Dwaita schools of thought respectively. 
As is also well known, Madhava’s philosophy based on Dwaita or dualism was subjected to 
taunts and criticisms by the Adwaita pandits, who asserted that it was unintelligible. It 
was Jayathirtha who removed this stigma by means of his Nyaya and Sudha, two great and 
masterful treatises interpreting the Dualism of Vedanta philosophy. 

Jayatirtha was born in the early years of the 14th century in Gulbarga district and 
succeeded Madhava’s disciple Akshobhayatirtha. He dedicated his life to spreading 
the gospel of his Master, and spent years in the taluqs of Yadgir and Malkhed. His 
works and teachings had a wide influence which extended far beyond Deccan, The 
religious reformers of Bengal belonging to the Chaitanya school were particularly in- 
fluenced by Jayatirtha’s Nyaya and Sudha, Jayatirtha died at the close of the 14th 
century and lies buried at Malkhed, 

PATRON SAINT OF THE SOUTH 

Hazrat Syed Muhammad Gesudaraz, popularly known as Khwaja Banda Nawaz, 
was one of the greatest Muslim saints in the Deccan. Born in 721 A.H. he came to Gul- 
barga during the reign of Feroz Shah Bahmani. He was the spiritual heir of Khwaja 
Naseeruddin Chirag-i-Delhi, and belonged to the Chishti school of Sufism. He is held 
in universal veneration by people of all castes and creeds, who regard him as the patron 
saint of the south. His spiritual influence has guided thousands of people to salvation. 

Khwaja Banda Nawaz was also a prolific writer and nearly 80 books in Persian and 



41 


Urdu are attributed to him. His sermons dating from 1396 A.D. are some of the earliest 
contributions to Urdu literature. He died in 825 A.H. at the age of 104 and his tomb in 
Gulbarga still radiates spiritual glory. 

Testifying to the fusion of culture is Srngaramanjari^ a book on Rhetoric in Sanskrit 
which was written by St Akbar Shah, a grandson of Hazrat Khwaja. 

Gurucharitra came to be written some time in the 15th- 16th century after the Dattat- 
raya cult had gained ascendancy in the district and in the Deccan. Irrespective of histori- 
city, Dattatraya came to be worshipped as a great yogi and philosopher, and consciously 
or unconsciously attempts were made to liken him to the sufis of Islam. Thus Dattatraya 
was looked upon as a great fakir and impressions were made only of his footprints instead 
of his image. The town of Gangapur in the district was the greatest centre of Dattatraya 
cult, and it still attracts thousands of devotees every year. The gurus mentioned in 
Gurucharitra were supposed to be the incarnations of Dattatraya, and many a miracle is 
attributed to them. 


SPIRITUAL REVIVAL IN 19TH CENTURY 

With the downfall of Bijapur at the hands of the Moghuls in 1685, Gulbarga became 
a part of the Moghul empire, which soon engulfed the kingdom of Golconda also. By 
1724 the district became a part of the Nizam’s dominions and figured prominently 
in the struggles between the Nizams and the Marathas. 

In the 19th century there was another revival of the spiritual tradition of Gulbarga 
when Shri Sharana Basaweshwara and Manik Prabhu began their campaign of religious 
teachings and uplift of humanity. 

Sharana Basaweshwara was a Lingayat saint of a high order who was born in Andola 
taluq of Gulbarga. His samadhi at Gulbarga is one of very great importance and attracts 
thousands of devotees every year. 


BEDARS OF KRISHNA VALLEY 

The Krishna Valley in the district is peopled by the homogeneous and ancient tribe 
of Bedars who still retain strong tribal consciousness. Shorapur is their stronghold and 
their chieftains still survive at Shorapur, Devdurg, Hulihaider and other places. They 
have been prominent at various times in history such as during the Bahmani-Vijaya- 
nagar struggle in the 15th and 16ih century and the invasion of the Deccan by Aurang- 
zeb. One of Aurangzeb’s generals, Diler Khan, was worsted in his fight against the 
Bedars and Aurangzeb cried out in admiration “ Praise to the Bedars and curses to the 
Dilers/’ 

GULBARGA CITY 

Originally Kalburgi, Gulbarga was a town of parochial importance until the Bah- 



42 


manis made it their capital. It has a strong fort which used to have a small Arab-Sikh 
garrison. The fort has a great mosque which is said to have been built in 1347. It is 
the largest covered mosque in India, having no courtyard. Modelled after the mosque of 
Cordova in Spain, its interior has the appearance of a grand old cathedral with long 
aisles. It has a large dome surrounded by smaller ones which present a curious spec- 
tacle. The area of the mosque is 38,016 square feet. 

Next in importance is the Dargah of Khwaja Banda Nawaz, which has a dome about 
80 feet high. Within the dargah premises are a Kaqqar Khana, a caravanserai for pilgrims, 
a madrasa and an exclusively carved stone mosque which was built by Aurangzeb. The 
tombs of the Bahmani kings, the dargah of saint Ruknuddin and the tomb of Shah Siraj- 
uddin are also of interest. Shah Sirajuddin is said to have spiritually influenced Khwaja 
Banda Nawaz and is believed to have attained the age of 1 1 1 years. 


SHARANA BASAWESHWARA 

The Sharana Basaweshwara temple is a good example of 19th century architecture. 
The kala$ on the sikhara of the temple was installed in 1949 after a period of 90 
years. About a century and quarter ago, at Aralgundagi, a village in the Jewargi taluq 
of Gulbarga district, in a pious Lingayat family of the Salokya lineage, Shri Sharana 
Basaweshwara took birth. He did not descend to the world with the dazzling fame of a 
divine avatar. He came from the simple folk of our own villages, unassuming, unsophisti- 
cated, unostentatious, and unsullied by the grime of urban civilization. 

After receiving whatever education he could at the village pathshala^ Sharana Basa- 
weshwara married; but already he was drinking deep of the nectar of spiritualism and, 
though outwardly adhering to the routine of married life, he inwardly developed intuitive 
knowledge and mystic experience. He would shower on all those who approached him 
for alms and assistance all the material possessions of his family, without pausing for ,a 
moment and without even thinking of the reqmrements of his own near and dear ones. 

This led to a schism in the family and his brothers demanded a division of the pro- 
perty- So the joint family broke up. ' Shri Sharana Basaweshwara gave a free hand to 
his brothers to take whatever they liked of the ancestral property, being contented with 
whatever was left to him. He then led the life of a farmer for some time. 

What a strange farmer he was I No fencing was needed for his fields. The village 
cattle were welcome guests to graze there. Far from driving away the cattle and birds 
that came to feed on his crops, he placed in his fields large vessels of water for them to 
drink &om. These vessels survive even to this day as eloquent evidence of this saint’s 
overflowing love for all living things. Thus Shri Sharana Basaweshwara practised in 
his life what was preached in the Vedas and the Upanishads, 

Once it so happened that Shri Sharana Basaweshwara was returning home early in 
the morning after collecting sacred leaves and flowers for Kis pujd^ wheii. soine . thieves 



43 


waylaid him. He disclosed to them that he had no money with him at the moment, 
but he would bring money for them from his house if only they allowed him to do so. 
The thieves allowed him to go home, never believing, of course, that he would come back. 
But, to their surprise, he came back with the money and humbly apologized for * the 
delay. Remorse seized the thieves and they fell prostrate before him and took an oath 
that they would lead an honest and pious life in the future. 

Such instances are innumerable even in the early life of this godly man. 

Having at last decided to lead a life of renunciation, sadhana and service, after the 
death of his wife and children when he was 35 years of age, he left his village on a pilgrim- 
age to Kalyan, with which place the imperishable glory of Basaweshwara is associated. 
But on his way he found that the land was in the grip of a great famine ; and realizing that 
serving humanity in distress was more important than pilgrimage, he gave up his idea of 
going to Kalyan and organized famine relief on an extensive scale to tens of thousands of 
starving people at Farhatabad, near Gulbarga. 

For months together, this feeding of the hungry continued, and his fame spread far 
and wide. The people came to him and requested that he should make Gulbarga his 
permanent abode. To their great joy, he agreed to do so. 

From now on Shri Sharana Basaweshwara’s was a life dedicated to the ministration 
of the suffering millions. Every minute of his remaining life was spent in healing the 
moral, material and spiritual wounds of the toiling and moiling masses ; in feeding the 
poor ; in wiping the orphan’s tears ; in soothing and guiding the sinner ; in serving 
the sick and curing the diseased by his extraordinary powers. 

Shri Sharana Basaweshwara demonstrated to the world, both by example and by 
precept, the eternal values and verities of life, its essential goodness and basic oneness ; 
and exhorted all round him to drink deep at the fountain of God’s abounding grace and 
to live in peace and amity, mutual co-operation and unity. He transcended all the 
artificial barriers of caste and creed that divided humanity into small fragments and 
discordant groups,- and rallied under his banner of Bhakti devotees from all castes and 
creeds including Muslims. Many a miracle is attributed to him : he is said to have 
brought back the dead to life, to have restored sight to the blind, and cured incurable 
diseases with his prasad. 

Even to this day people from far and wide flock to his samadhi for the fulfilment 
of their hearts’ desires. He was a beacon light to all in his time, and even today his 
message is the kindly light that leads millions of his devotees amid the encircling gloom 
of earthly life. Although his physical existence came to a close years ago, his ethereal 
and spiritual existence is eternal and his message immortal Shri Sharana Basaweshwara 
is popularly known as Sharana Basappa and for 15 days in March every year a great 



44 

fair is held at Gulbarga to commemorate the death anniversary of this Lingayat .%aint. 


MONUMENTS 

The full list of other main places of interest in Gulbarga city and suburbs is : Tomb 
of Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahmani. Tomb of Mahmud Shah I. Large Bijapur Arch 
and Afzal Khan’s Mosque inside the Dargah premises. Ghand Bibi’s Tomb. Siddi 
Ambar’s Tomb. Ismail Molchs’ Mosque and grave. Shah Bazar Mosque and 
Hammam. Chor Gumbad. Old Idgah. Dargah of Hazrat Shaikh Sirajuddin Junaidi. 
Langar-ki-]Masjid. Dargah, Mosque and Serai of H. Kamal Mujarrad. Qalandar 
Khan’s Mosque and Tomb. (Qalander Khan was the Governor of Gulbarga after the 
capital was transferred to Bidar in 1422 A.D.) Hirapur mosque and well attributed 
to Chand Bibi. Ferozabad Remains. Bahmani Tombs at Holconda. 

Ghand Bibi’s tomb built in characteristic Bijapur style is said to have been built by 
Ghand Bibi but she was never buried in it and the tomb is really empty. The Ghor Gum- 
bad is one of the seven gumbads^ domes, of Gulbarga. It is lofty and colossal having under- 
ground labyrinths which were used by robbers and thugs at one time. Gol. Meadows 
Taylor also lived here for a time and he has mentioned it in his books. Langar-ki-Masjid 
is peculiar in its construction, having an elephant-back roof resembling that of a Buddhist 
chaitya and its sloping caves are supported by elephant-trunk brackets. 

Holconda, at the 18th milestone on the Honmabad road, has five beautiful tombs 
resembling the seven domes of Gulbarga, but is not known who are buried there. 

Ferozabad town and fortress were built by Feroz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422 A.D.) 
on lines similar to Akbar’s Fatehpur Sikri. Feroz was asked by the Saint Banda Nawaz to 
quit Gulbarga and remove his capital to some other site. Feroz Shah selected the banks 
of the Bhima for the site of the town and the fortress. Inside the fort walls are remains of 
large palaces, a Jami Masjid, Turkish baths, kitchens and various other buildings which 
remained incomplete. 

Here Feroz housed his harem of 800 women of various nations and led a gay life. The 
new town was his Gapua but never superseded Gulbarga as the administrative capital. 

At Gogi, inside the premises of the Dargah of H. Chanda Shah Husaini are the graves 
of four Adil Shahi kings, Yusuf, Ismail, Ibrahim and Mallu, in a roofed gallery and 
there is also the tomb of Fatima Sultana, sister of Ali Adil Shah, close to which there is 
an ordinary mosque in late Bijapur style. The Dargah of the saint for whom these potent- 
ates had a profound spiritual attachment is a plain grave surrounded by a square enclosed 
compound of exquisite trellis screens executed in plaster. 

At the southern side of the Dargah is an elegant mosque- built in chaste Bijapur style. 
The mosque is known as the Kali Masjid on account of the dark grey stone used in its 
construction. This edifice was erected by Fatima Sultana, 

" ' In the town is a'ddtible-sioi-eyad 4-partitioned mosque known as ' A^bal^’' 



45 


in which is a Persian Inscription of Muhammad Tughlaq. 

ALAND 

Here is the Dargah of H. Shaikh Alauddin Ansari (locally known as Ladlay Sahib) who 
was the spiritual leader of H. Khwaja Banda Nawaz of Gulbarga, 


MALKHED 

Here lies buried the great philosopher-saint Jayatirtha, Once the mighty capital 
of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, it has now dwindled down to a small village with a scanty 
population. The town nestles on the right bank of the Kagna, a tributary of the Bhima 
and lies at a distance of about three miles from Malkhed Road railway station. 

The town served as the capital of the Rashtrakutas from the 8th to 10th century A.D. 
Some altered temples and sculptures, an old fort and fragments of carvings, images, and 
inscriptions, which lie scattered about in the various localities of the village and the sur- 
rounding fields, go to show its magnitude and extent. Malkhed lost its lustre consequent 
on its sack at the hands of the Paramara ruler, Siyaka, in 962 A.D. and no further 
account of the town is heard until it was included in the Bahmani domains in the 14th 
century, and later annexed by Aurangzeb to the Moghul Empire of Delhi towards the 
end of the 17 th century. 

In the time of the Rashtrakuta King Amoughravarsha I, however, Malkhed seems 
to have been a great centre of Jaina religion, literature and culture. Jinasena, the great 
guru of Amoughravarsha and author of several works noticed below, Mahendra, a Jaina 
mathematician, Gunabhadra, Puspadanta and Ponna (Kannada writer) seem to have 
made Malkhed their home. 

Jainism must have been an active force in the lives of kings and commoners alike at 
this time. We find Amoughravarsha renouncing the kingdom to become an ascetic in his 
old age and later Indraraja IV also renounced the kingdom and ended his days ‘‘ accord- 
ing to the Jaina form of renunciation.” Numerous records at Sravana Belagola and 
other places in the south record the munificence of various Rashtrakuta kings ; and contri- 
bute to the fame of Malkhed and its rulers. 

A number of Jaina and other works are stated to have been composed in this place 
(1) Adipuram and (2) Parsvabhyudaya Kavya both by Jinasena are the famous productions 
of the time of Amoughravarsha. Amoughavritti^ a great commentary on the Sanskrit 
grammar of Sakatayana is named after this Rashtrakuta king and was probably the result 
of his patronage. Ganita-sara^ a work on mathematics by Mahavira is another work that 
we owe to his encouragement of learning. There is considerable basis for believing that 
the Kannada work on Poetics, Kavirajamarga^ was firom the pen of Amoughravarsha 
himself ; nor is there any doubt about the merit of his beautiful kavya RatYiomalikd which 
according to his own statement he composed when he had abdicated the throne on 
account of the growth of ascetic spirit in him.” 

The famous Umm Purma, the seqirel to Ai^pwtma^ was composed in the reigh of 



46 


Krishna II by Gunabhadra. Puspadanta was evidently the most famous author of this 
reign although only three of his works have survived to his day, namely (1) Mahapurana or 
Tisatihi-purisa'-gunalamkara^ (2) Jasahacariu^ an Apabhramsa work in four chapters, and (3) 
Maya-Kumaracariu, another apabhramsa work in nine chapters. Two other works are also 
famous as having been composed during the reign of Krishna II namely Jvala-malini- 
kalpa of Indranandi in 939 A.D. and Yasastilaka-compu of Somadeva in A.D. 959. The 
Kannada poet Ponna was highly honoured and was conferred the title Ubhayabhasa- 
chakravarti by the king. 

Malkhed in Rashtrakuta times “ scraped the sky by its mountain-like high palaces ’’ 
and is called, “ the champion of the celestial city, crowded with people and with flower 
gardens.” 

The modern villages of Malkhed, Seram and Nagai— within a mile or so of each 

(^ther appear to have been the localities and suburbs of one and the same great City of 

Malkhed. The abundance of ancient mounds, inscriptions, carvings and other materials 
of old Hindu temple-architecture which are littered over in these villages when exposed 
and pieced together account for the glorious capital of the Rashtrakutas, who 
played such an important part in the political and cultural evolution of the Deccan and 
the south. 

Nagai is sacred to Digamber Jains; while Gangapur is the town of the Dattatraya 

cult. 

Nagai is of antiquarian interest because of the mantap of 16 carved pillars forming 
the entrance to the hall of a shrine w^hich still retains the Chalukyan star-shaped base. 
It has two big inscribed slabs of black stone. Nearby is a Digamber Jain temple with 
two Jina images, the one in Adytum being a standing figure with a five-headed snake as 
canopy and worshippers at the feet. There is also a Hanuman temple with a beautiful 
carrot-shaped dipdan. There are also Kali Masjid and a Muslim shrine in the 
locality. 

At Seram the Panch Linga Temple with its five shrines and the monolithic dipdan 
are most prominent. These remains belong to the 11th and 12th centuries A.D. There 
are also some Jaina temples, sculptures and inscriptions of the 11th to 13th centuries in 
the town. 


SAGAR 

Fortifications, gateways, dargahs and the Janai Masjid indicate that Sagar was of 
considerable political and religious importance during the Bahmani and Adil Shahi rule, 
as is evidenced by the number, extent and grandeur of the monuments. Persian inscrip- 
tions range from 1713 A.D. 

... SHAHPUR 

I^ere.are .tombs of Adil Shahi Hngs aad a ruined fort supposed . to. be buUt by the 



47 


rajas of Warangal, but Persian inscriptions show that the modern fort was built by the 
Bahmani and Adil Shahi kings. 

On the top of the hill is an old temple, a ruined mosque and two dargahs. There are 
also prehistoric avenues and menhirs here. 


SHORAPUR 

The Shorapur fort is said to have been originally built by the Bender Rajas-Naikas- 
but there is nothing left of the original fort. On a gateway of the present fortifications 
of the town is a Persian inscription giving the name of Aurangzeb and the date 1117 A.H. 

In the towxi are the palac^es of the present Raja of Shorapur, which have excellent 
collections of old historic documents, paintings and other valuables. 

On an eminence to the north of the town is the Taylor Manzil and a Mahal attached 
to it left by Col. Meadows 1 aylor, who has bequeathed momentoes of his life in the Deccan 
together with his biography My Life and several other novels in which events of his 
own life and contemporary incidents have been collected that give a good picture of 19th 
century Deccan. 

He has also a good collection of historical novels to his credit, which commemmorate 
events of the reigns of Bijapur kings. Taylor Manzil has been maintained as a local 
museum and guest house by the Archaeological Department. 

Shorapur taluq has some beautiful rapids which are close to the temple of Chaya 
Bhagwati on the banks of the Krishna. Hundreds of tourists visit these waterfalls every 
year. 


YADGIR 

The fort at Yadgir was built by Feroz Shah Bahmani, but it is probable that this was 
also the site of a fort built by the Yadavas, or the rajas of Warangal. In Yadgir taluq 
again, there are many places of prehistoric interest. 




HYDERABAD 


o NE of the few twin cities of the world, the capital of Hyderabad State is the 
Budapest of India. A sheet of water, as nobl^ as the blue Danube, separates the twin 
cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, which like Budapest have similar old and new 
streets and suburbs. 

Mosques and minarets, bazars and bridges, and hills and lakes, remind one of 
Constantinople, while to stand on the Hussainsagar bund, at sunset, is to catch a 
fleeting illusion of the Bay of Naples or the Ionian scenery. 

Perched on the top of the Deccan plateau nearly 2,000 feet above the sea, romantic 
as the Alhambra, the twin cities sprawl over 96 square miles of hills and hillocks, plains 
and valleys, lakes and rivulets* Contrasting scenes meet at every turn of the road. 
Oriental bazars hobnob with streets of western inspiration, and typical Indian villages 
suddenly appear in all their rustic greenery after a spell of palaces and boulevards* The 
architecture is as varied as the history of the city has been colourful. Ancient Indian, 
Saracenic, Moghul, colonial English and French, modern German and American and 
modern Indian styles of architecture create an atmosphere of exuberance and richness, 
wealth and variety of the conflict of civilizations and the tremendous pace of history. 

Unlike Delhi and Mathura, Paris or Rome, Hyderabad is but an infant. It had 
no history until King Ganapati, the famous Kakatiya king, built a kutcha fort on the 
grim rocky prominence now known as Golconda. It was then called Mankal according 
to Maathire Alamgiri* The Kakatiyas became independent of the Chalukyas and the 
dynasty was founded by King Rudradeva. The Thousand Pillar Temple at Hauam- 
konda owes its origin to him. King Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter 
Rudrama, during whose rule Marco Polo visited the Kakatiya kih^om and was im- 
pressed by her administration. After Pratap Rudra II (1296-1325), the Kakatiya dynasty 



50 


gave way to Muslim power in the south. Still there was no Hyderabad. 

In the reign of Muhammad Shah III (MSS), the thirteenth king of the great Bahmani 
dynasty which reigned in the Deccan for nearly two hundred years, troubles arose in 
Telingana, and a Baharlu Turk of Hamadan, Sultan Quli by name, who had been a slave 
in the imperial household, was appointed to pacify the country and to clear the land of the 
robbers who had overrun it. The Kakatiya fort of Golconda was ceded to this young 
Turk. The young Turk’s performance of the task entrusted to him surpassed the expec- 
tations of all. The condition of the Bahmani kingdom at this time was such that an 
appeal to arms would probably have hastened its downfall, and the young man was con- 
sequently compelled to rely on his diplomatic tact and personal' charm of manner. Not- 
withstanding the disadvantages under which he laboured, he soon succeeded in restoring 
order, thus securing the confidence placed in him by the ladies of the harem, and win- 
ning useful friends among non-Muslims and those amirs of the empire who had lands in 
Telingana. 

Under Mahmud Shah IV (1482), Stiltan Qjali became an amir of the empire, with the 
title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, receiving as his jagir Golconda with the surrounding country » 
Shortly after receiving this grant he was appointed commander-in-chief in Telingana, a 
position which strengthened his hands considerably. In 1512 Qutb-ul-Mulk, who had 
for some time been practically independent, followed the example which had been set by 
Yusuf Adil Khan, Ahmad Nizam-ul-Mulk, and Fath-ullah Imad-ul-Mulk, the governors 
of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Berar, and, throwing off his allegiance to the now feeble 
house of Bahman, proclaimed himself independent sovereign of the territory which he had 
hitherto ruled in the king’s name. Assuming the style of Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, he 
made Golconda his capital. 

Sultan Quli had already replaced the old Kakatiya mud fort with a strong fortress 
of stone which the surrounding country yielded in large quantities. His fort received 
many and substantial additions at the hands of his descendants and successors. The 
Qutb Shahi kings of Golconda did not, like their neighbours, the Adil Shahi kings of 
Bijapur, run mad on architecture, but they built and built well, in spile of a depraved 
preference for stucco for buildings other than fortifications. 

Thus came into being Golconda, but Hyderabad had to wait till 1591. In that year 
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth king of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda, 
grew weary of his fortress capital, which was then so overcrowded with habitations as to 
be both unhealthy and unpleasant as a place of residence. While hunting one day on 
the south*bank of the river Musi, he was attracted by the fresh and green appearance of 
the site on which the city of Hyderabad now stands, about six miles from the fortress of 
Golconda, and selected it as the site of his new capital. 

He caUed the new city Bhagnagar after the lady of hjs love, Bhagmati, to meet whom 
he used to cross the Musi on horseback while yet heir-apparent. When the city grew 



51 


it was renamed Hyderabad. The first work taken in hand was the laying out of four 
bazars, at the entrance of each of which a great arch was erected on the principal road, 
the space within the arches being designated the Chat Kaman or four arches,** which 
name it still retains. 

To the south of this space was erected the Char Minar which is to this day the most 
conspicuous landmark in the city of Hyderabad, and even figured on the obverse of 
the Hyderabad rupee. , "" 

One of the earliest buildings to be taken in hand, by a devout Muslim sovereign 
founding a new city, was the Jami Masjid^ or principal mosque, where all the inhabi- 
tants may meet for the general Friday prayers. This was founded in A.H, 1006 (A.D. 
1597-98) according to a Persian inscription over the gateway. 

The next work to be undertaken was building a permanent bridge over the Musi to 
connect the new city on its south bank with the old fortress capital of Golconda. This 
bridge still exists and is known as the old bridge. It is the westernmost of the four bridges 
which now span the river between Hyderabad and its northern suburbs, and is carried 
on twenty-three pointed arches. Over it runs the old highroad from the north-western 
gate of the city, through Karwan, to the principal gate of Golconda. The building of 
the bridge was followed by the building of a hospital and public baths, and the king’s 
architects then set to work to design the royal palace, which was built on some open 
ground to the east of the Char Minar, probably the site now accupied by the Nizam’s 
palace known as the Purani though the present palace, despite its name, is not 

that built by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. An ornamental cistern called the GuIzclt 
Hauz^ or ‘‘ cistern of the rose garden,” was constructed at the same time. This cistern 
still exists in the centre of the Char Kamarty but there is little in its surroundings that re- 
calls a rose garden. The Dad Mahal, or hall of justice, a building which was unfortu- 
nately destroyed by fire when Ibrahim Khan was subahdar of the Deccan, was also built 
at the same time. Another building of the same date, which cannot now be traced, 
was the Madi Mahal, or river palace. 

According to Firishta, the city of Hyderabad lies among the trees on the south bank 
of the river Musi, a city “ the like of which for beauty and cleanliness, is not to be found 
in the whole of Hindustan east, west, south, or north. Its compass is near five leagues, 
and its bazars, unlike those of other cities of India, are laid out on a fixed plan and are 
spacious and clean, and through them run water channels beside which grow shady 
trees.” 

This is somewhat highly coloured, but the situation of the city is undeniably beautifuls 
Of its aspect, from the hill on which the Falaknuma Palace now stands, the Kuh4-^Tiir or 
‘ Mount Sinai ’ of Qutb Shahi days. Colonel Meadows Taylor writes : “ from one 
favourite point of view of mine, the city lies stretched before you, the graceful Char IV^iiar 
or gate of the four minarets, in its centre; the gigantic Mecca mosque standing out nobly; 
while the large tank lies at your feet, and the bold rock of the fort of Golconda rises in ;; 
distance. From hence, a rising, sun gradually lighting up every object in the clear 



52 


ing air^ and the growing, glittering landscape terminating in the tender blue of the 
distance, (the scene) is inexpressibly beautiful.’’ 

At least it must have seemed so to Shah Abbas, son of Tahmasp Safavi, and his ambas- 
sador who came to the court of Golconda via Goa with many valuable Iranian presents, in 
1 603. He remained in ** the dilkusha garden of Hyderabad ” till 1 609. There were other 
ambassadors too. Husain Baig Qubchachi, another Persian ambassador, came in 1614 
and returned in 1616. In 1617 Mir Makki and Munshi Jadoo Rao represented jehangir 
at the court of Golconda. But these friendly relations only increased Delhi’s appetite 
for the territories and riches of Golconda, and Aurangzeb, as viceroy of the 'Deccan, 
nearly conquered Hyderabad at the instigation of Mir Jumla, the double dealing Qjatb 
Shahi Prime Minister. Mir Jumla will also be remembered for his conquest of Assam 
as a Moghul Commander-in-Chief. This first encounter with Delhi ended in a truce 
while Aurangzed hastened back to contest the imperial throne following Shah Jahan’s 
illness. Abdulla Qutb Shah, however, had no illusions, and when Aurangzeb captured 
the throne of Delhi, King Abdulla placed upon his seal and coinage the pathetic legend: 
it has come to a good and auspicious conclusion. This motto is usually referred to as a prescience 
of the fall of the Golconda. 

Meanwhile, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, familiarly known as the Good King Tana 
Shah, came to the throne. He began as a pious darvishy but soon became the merry 
monarch of the Deccan, not unlike Muhammad Shah revelling in drinking, feasting and 
orgies. The administration, however, was ably carried on by two Brahmins, Madanna 
and Venkanna (Akanna), who governed the country in accordance with Hindu principles. 
Aurangzeb seized upon this as a pretext, and invaded Qutb Shahi territories in 1684 but 
actually the seige of Golconda began in 1687 and lasted eight months. Repeated treachery, 
despite the bravery of Abdur Razaq Lari, gave the fort to Aurangzeb and the king- 
dom of Golconda became just another Moghul district. It remained so until Mir Qam- 
ruddin Chin Qilich Khan made himself independent of the Moghul court. Emperor 
Farrukh Sayyar had made him viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Nizam-uLMulk 
Feroz Jung in 1713 but the Moghul kingdom was in decadence and the tussle for the 
throne continued until Muhammed Shah became king. In all this and in meeting the 
invasion of Nadir Shah and stopping the massacre of Delhi, Nizam-ul-Mulk played a 
conspicuous part and was rewarded with the title of Asaf Jah. He was then one of the 
ablest statesmen of the time even though his advice fell upon deaf ears. He declared 
himself independent of the Moghuls in 1724, and founded the Asafia dynasty. 

The later Nizams, neither so wise nor so capable, maintained themselves somehow 
amid the conflicting new powers of the time — ^the Hon’ble East India Company, the 
Tfenchmen and the Marathas. In this sempiternal conflict, the Nizams steadily lost, 
despite their playing one off against the other, until John Company became Queen Vic- 
toria’s empire. Thereafter the Nizams were as good as any other ruler at the mercy of 
the British Crown. 

• ' *Regp.fded as one of the six largest dties in India, Hyderabad together with 



53 


Secunderabad, has a total population of over 10,85,000. One interesting fact is that 
Secunderabad has more women while Hyderabad has more men. In Hyderabad, males 
exceed females by about 6,178. According to satistics literacy is about 25.25 per cent. 

At present the twin cities cover about 96 square miles. Here, it is interesting to note 
that the area of Paris is only 30 square miles. The Musi divides old and new Hydera- 
bad, which are connected by four narrow bridges. The old city is on the right bank 
and the new on the left, but growth has been all round, and the old city is only a core 
round which new areas have come up. Hyderabad has many distinctive divisions 
which are small towns by themselves. The aristocratic localities are acknowledged 
to be Banjara Hills, Somajiguda, and Saifabad, while modern colonies comprise 
Himayatnagar, Hyderguda, and Narayanguda. Mushirabad is an industrial area while 
Adigmet is the seat of the Osmania University. The left bank is decidedly more pic- 
turesque, and is perhaps the real capital because almost all Government offices are on 
this side of the river. The Secretariat and the Mint fringe upon the Hussainsagar, 
while Shah Manzil in Somajiguda and adjoining palaces Have been for long the 
stronghold of Hyderabad’s Prime Ministers and administrator^ ^ Below the shadow 
of the Naubat Pahar, are the Town Hall, the Nizam Club, the Darbar Hall, the Police 
Headquarters, the Zoo and the Public Gardens. Across the railway line are other resi- 
dential quarters such as Red Hills and Mallepalli. The A.C, Guard Lines, Mansahe- 
ba’s Tank and Asifnagar and beyond were once the Nizam’s army’s strong points. 

Khairiatabad is another amazing locality where the primitive and the modern, 
and rural and urban scenes, intermingle. Here, buildings vary from the swineherd’s 
hovel on a drainage sewer to such imposing an edifice as the Institution of Engineers. 
Adjoining the Fateh Maidan, is the Nizam College and from here to the river bank, the 
area comprising Abid Road, Sultan Bazar, Station Road, Afzalgunj and other streets 
and bazars, is a great centre of trade, commerce, banking, law and business of all kinds. 
It can be favourably compared to Clive Sreet, Calcu tta, ai^ the City in London. 

, ‘ Chadarghat is another picturesque locality, which at one time comprised the entire 
area up to Gunfoundry. This was the northern suburb of the city separated from it by 
the Musi river. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of 1909, ** It derives its name from 
a dam 12 feet high thrown across the Musi, over which the water falls like a sheet 
(chadar). At one time this suburb contained most of the houses of the Europeans in the 
service of the Nizam and also of native officials, and has sprung up within the last fifty 
years. In 1850 with the exception of the Residency and its bazars, there was scarcely 
a building to be found where houses may be now counted by thousands, many of them 
fine buildings. The Roman Cathohe Cathedral and All Saints’ School; the old French 
Gunfoundry erected by M. Raymond, and referred to by Malcolm (1798) as a place in 
which ‘ they cast excellent cannon and made serviceable muskets Sir W. Rumbold’s 
house (Rumbold’s Kothi) now occupied by the Nizam College, the King Kothi, where 
the Nizam’s eldest son resides; the Public Works Office; the Hyderabad College; and tile 



54 


fine buildings known as the Saifabad Palace, now used as the offices of the Financial, Pub- 
lic Works and the Private Secretaries, were once all included in this area. Adjoining the 
compound of this palace in the west is the Mint and Stamp Office, an immense buil- 
ding which was completed in 1904.” 

The city was once surrounded by a stone wall flanked with bastions, and pierced 
with thirteen gates and twelve khirkis or posterns. It was built in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, six miles in circumference and 2^ square miles in area. The wall was commenced 
by Mubariz Khan, the last Moghul Subahdar, and completed by the first of the Nizams. 
The city has extended beyond its former limits on the north and east. Four bridges 
span the Musi. The Purana Pul, or 'Old Bridge,’ is the westernmost, and theOliphant 
or Chadarghat Bridge, the easternmost, while between these two are the Afzal Bridge 
and the Musallamjung Bridge. 

The Dar-ush-shifa (hospital) about 200 yards to the north-west of the Purani Havcli 
(old palace), built by Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, is a large building consisting of a paved 
quadrangular courtyard, with chambers all round for the accommodation of the sick. 
A number of native physicians were formerly maintained to minister to the sick and to 
teach medicine. Opposite the' entrance is a fine mosque erected at the same time as 
the hospital. The Ashur Khana, a large building west of Sir Salar Jung’s palace, was 
erected by Sultan Muhammad Quli Qptb Shah in 1594, at a cost of Rs. 66,000. It is 
used for the Muharram ceremonies. The Gosha Mahal palace, erected hy Abul 
Hasan, the last Qptb Shahi King, stands a mile north of the city and has a large 
cistern and pleasure grounds for the zanana. The.Jami Masjid, which is near the 
Char Minar, was built in 1596. Ruins of a Turkish bath are to be seen in the courtyard. 
With the exception of the Mecca Masjid and the Gosha Mahal, most of the buildings 
here were constructed by Sultan Muhammad Qpli Qutb Shah, who is said to have 
spent three million sterling on public buildings and irrigation works, while his nobles 
followed his example. An extensive burial-ground known as Mir Momin’s Daira, 
was originally consecrated as the necropolis of the Shiah sect by Mir Momin, who 
came to Hyderabad from Karbala, in the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. It contains 
his remains, but now both Shiahs and Sunnis are buried here. Sir Salar Jung’s family 
burial-ground lies to the south of the Daira. 

The Nizam’s Ghaumahalla palace consists of three quadrangles with handsome 
buildings on either side, and large cisterns in the centre. The palace is luxuriously 
and tastefully furnished, and the zanana or ladies’ • apartments lie beyond the third 
quadrangle. There are other royal residences at Golconda, Sururnagar, Maula AH, 
Asafnagar, Lingampalli and Malakpet. Salar Jung’s palace, now a national museum, 
is situated near the new bridge and consists of two portions, one containing the Baradari 
and Lakkar Kot (wooden palace) lies on the right bank of the Musi, and the other is 
beyond the road -leading to the Purani Havcli, Both are extensive bxiildings covering a 
large space of ground; Shams- ul- U inara’s 'Baradari, situated in the ' w^st of the dty, 



KARIMNAGAa 


H 

*■- -■•ISTORICALLY Karimnagar is a little obscure, though there are traces which 
represent a people lost to history but who may have flourished over 2,500 years ago. At 
EDanthakimta local tradition associates the temples of Sri Rama with Sri Ramchandraji’s 
visit to the place while in exile in the Dandakaranya. Where history fails, surely tradition 
must take its place. Hewitt’s references to Tdingana in his Ruling Races of Prehistone 
Tims seem to indicate that this part of the south was by no means unimportant in the 
ancient world. 

The district was formerly known as “ Sarkar Yeligandal ” and in 1905 was renamed 
as Karimnagar. Most of the district was under the kings of Warangal and portions of 
the present Mahadeopur taluq were under the Gond rajas. Malik Kafur, a general 
of Alauddin Khilji, invaded this country in the year 1309 and defeated Raja Pratap 
of Warangal and the forts of Elgandal and Malangur fell into Muslim hands. In 
1507 these forts passed into the hands of Qutb Shahis along with Warangal. These 
were later occupied by the Nizam. 

Close to the fort of Malangur there arc old graves, bdieved to be those of Jains. 
Another fort of interest in the district is the Ramgir fort situated on the top of a hill. 

FORT OF 400 TEMPLES 

The Nagnur fort has considerable historical importance. It derives its name from the 
fact that there were 400 temples in it at one time. “ Nalgunoorlu,” the Tdugu word for 
four hundred, was corrupted to “ Nagnur.” Even today there are two good temples — 
one of Vishnu and the other of Siva. There are three stupas or pillars called “Budhatis,” 
which are believed to have been constructed during Asoka’s time. This shows, that 
the place is of ancient oiigin. 

The temples of Kaleswar and Dharmapuri on the banks of the Godavari and those at 
Vcmalwada and Ellanthakimta attract large numbers of pilgrims durir^ the annual 



74 

jatras. At Kaleswar is one of the Siva temples that mark the CKtremity of the Trilinga 
or Telugu country in the north. 

The fort at Elgandal, built by Zafaruddaula about 1754, contains a mosque with 
a minaret which oscillates when shaken. 

Injamikunta are the two forts of Bajgur and Malangur, said to have been built 
respectively 700 and 1,000 years ago, and the two temples of Gurshal and Katkur. 
The former, built about 1229, during the reign of Raja Pratap Rudra of Warangal, 
though now in ruins has exquisite stone carvings still in a good state of preservation. 
A pillar outside the temple has an inscription in Oriya. 

The fort of Jagtial was built for Zafaruddaula, in 1747, by French engineers. In 
the same taluq is the old temple at Dharampuri on the right bank of the Godavari. 

The old fort of Anantagiri in the Sirsilla taluq, now in ruins, is built on a hill. Two 
mosques in the taluq, one at Kaleswar and the other at Sonipet, were built by Aurangzeb, 
as also was the mosque at Rajgopalpet in the Siddipet taluq, 

Pratapgiri fort in the Mahadeopur taluq, is said to have been built by Raja Pratap 
Rudra. 

Vemalwada has a temple on the south of a large tank in the enclosure of which is 
the tomb of Hazrat Beg Sarwar which is regarded as sacred by Hindus and Muslims 
alike. 

In the Karimnagar taluq, Bijikhi has an old sculptured Siva temple the four central 
columns of whose mandapa are well-carved, while Kotapetta has a temple of the 
Ghaliikyan (Kakatiya) period. 


HUZURABAD 

The dargah of Shah Wali at Malangur is held in great esteem by Hindus as well as 
Muslims, while the hill fort there is said to have been built 1,000 years ago. 

A 13th- 14th century temple at Borapalli has a stone slab with Nandi on top and 
Kannada ii^criptions on .either side. 


JAGTIAL 

The fort here was built for Zafaruddaula by French engineers and is on the same lines 
th^t at Nirmal. There is also a mosque of the period in Jagtial. 


SULTANABAD 

The temple at Kundagal has a beautifully sculptured column cairved in black stone, 
while the ruined temple consecrated to Siva and Vishnu has a finely sculptured slab 
inside. Huge blocks of stone have been used in constructing this building. 

in thb taluq is regarded as a holy place because Sage 



75 


Gautama performed his tapas here. There are several temples here, the largest being the 
Silesvaragudi which has a sikhara resembling those of south Indian temples. An inscrip- 
tion in old Nagri refers to king Ganapati of Warangal. 

Karimnagar has also numerous prehistoric sites scattered all over the district. 




MAHBOOBNAGAR 


In the story of Sindbad the Sailor in The Thousand and One Mights the tale is told of 
diamonds in an inaccessible gorge, into which animal carcases were thrown to be carried 
away by the roc, a gigantic bird, with diamonds adhering to them. 

This gorge might well have been one of the Krishna gorges in Mahboobnagar 
district, and the narrator evidently combined the well-known property of diamonds 
adhering to animal fat, and the sacrifice of goats which the diamond miners, as Tavernier 
relates, were in the habit of making on the openii^ of a new workmg to ensure its success. 

THE DIAMONDS OF GOLCONDA 

But Indian diamonds were famous even in 500 B.G. when they were estported to 
Iran. The Brihat Samfdia (A.D. 550) mentions eight localities where diamonds were 
then found, and among tlicm Panna (Central India) and the Krishna area only can be 
identified. 

It was, however, during the Qjxtb Shahi' period that Golconda achieved world fiimc 
as a diamond market. In 1645, Tavernier, a French jewdler, visited Golconda and the 
Qjitb Shahi kingdom, and he says that he found 60,000 workers in the KoUur group of 
nunes. He also records that diamonds were cut in the village of Karwan outside Gol- 
conda fort. 

The Krishna basin has produced some femous diamonds. The KOH-I-NUR was 
found at KoUur in Madras, south of the Krishna, about 1656-1657, and was presented by 
Mir Jumla to Shah Jahan. The stone then weighed 787^ carats. It has passed through 
many handls and is in the Imperial Regalia of Britain. 

The PITT or REGENT diamond was found in 1701 in Partial, weighed 410 carats 
and is now the property of the French Republic. It is exhibited in the ApoUo Gallery of 
the Louvre, and valued at ^ 48,000. It was reduced by cutting to about 137 carats. 

The HOPE DIAMOND is perhaps a portion of the blue drop-form diamond found 



78 


at Kollur and sold by Tavernier to Louis XIV in 1642. It then weighed about 67 carats. 

The NIZAM diamond of 277 carats is only a portion of a diamond which is said to 
have weighed 440 carats before it broke. Tavernier also saw at Golconda the GRKAT 
TABLE diamond weighing 242 carats, which Maskelyne considers to be identical with 
the DARYA-I-NUR in the possession of the Shahs of Persia. 

Partial, one-time enclave of Hyderabad in Madras, also has diamond-bearing forma- 
tions. It is, however, a moot point whether the rocks of the Klrishna basin can be worked 
for diamonds today. 


LAND OF THE CHOLAS 

As Panagal and Panugallu, Mahboobnagar goes far back into history and prehistory. 
The ancient name of the region was Gholawadi or the land of the Cholas.’® It was 
bounded on the north by the Musi and in the south by the Krishna, thus corresponding 
to Panagal or Mahboobnagar, and Nalgonda. The great days of the Gholas began 
in 480 A.D. 

The subsequent history of the district follows the usual pattern of other regions of 
Andhradesa, linked up as it was with the fortunes of various Andhra dynasties. Finally, 
on the fall of the kingdom of Warangal, it came under the Bahmanis. South of Panagal 
village, the fortress of Panagal in the Nagarkarnool taluq still commemorates the defeat of 
Feroz Shah Bahmani in 1470 by the rajas of Warangal and Vijayanagar, and the decisive 
victory of Sultan Qtili Qutb Shah over the king of Vijayanagar in 1513. Both these 
historic battles were fought outside the fortress. 

The fortress is a mile and half long and a mile broad, having seven walls, a citadel in 
the centre and seven towers. Illegible inscriptions are engraved on a couple of slabs 
outside the fort. According to another Telugu inscription in the citadel, the king^s 
mother lived in the foi't in 1604 when tjie seneschal was Khairat Khan. The second 
Nizam also resided in one of the buildings in the fort from 1786 to 1789. 

TEMPLE OF 900 STEPS 

To retrace the history after the fall of the Bahmanis, a portion of Mahboobnagar 
district was annexed by the Qutb Shahi kings, while the other portion became part of 
Bijapur. After 1686, the district became part of Aurangzeb’s empire, and early in the 
18th century it was incorporated in the Nizam’s dominions. 

The fort of Koilkonda was built by Ibrahim Qutb Shah, one of the Golconda kings, 
and contains substantial buildings which are now in ruins. In the Amrabad feiluq is a 
ruined fort, called the Pratap Rudra Kot, which could shelter a large garrison. The old 
ruined city of Ghandraguptapatmam, 32 miles south of Amrabad on the left bank of the 
Krishna, was a very populous place during the reign of Pratap Rudra, raja of Warangal. 
Besides these, there are four old .temples of which the Maheswara temple is built on a 



79 


hill with 900 steps from the foot to the summit. Mahboobnagar was formerly known 
as Nagaj'karnooL 


AMRABAD 

Beautiful as the Amrabad plateau is, it is not without its monuments. The Maheswara 
temple of 900 steps has already been mentioned, but there are forts and temples at 
Rangapur, Ghandraguptapatnam and Mannanur. 


GADWAL 

This old Samasthan, which was incorporated with the State on the abolition of the 
Jagirdari, has an old Hindu fortress built in the south Indian style at Gadwal, and a 
temple at Pardur. 


JADCHERLA 

In this taluq there are temples, prehistoric sites, remains of the Buddhist period and 
an old tower built during the Muslim period. 


MAHBOOBNAGAR 

The town has a Jami Masjid, temples and forts and mosques in Bodhpur, Lingal, 
Nasarullabad, Badaypalli and Ghanpur. At Koilkonda there is a 16th century 
inscription on a small pillar in front of the gate. Here is also the Idgah of Hazrat 
Syed Abdxir Rahman Ghishti, dating from the 16th or 17th century. 




HANDED 


N 

5^ ™ ANDl TAT of thf Puramx and Nao Nand of prehistory, Nanded is the 
sacred-most city of the Sikhs in southern India. The Purams refer to Nanded as a very 
sacred place too. MacAlifT gives another intei'esting version of the origin of Nanded : 

“ The original name of Nanded was ‘ Nao nand ’ because it is said that nine rishis 
dwelt there in prehistoric times. It is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient city of 
Tagara described by the author of Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. In the middle of the 
4th century it was still a place of importance and the capital of a petty kingdom. Its 
fortifications have since been dismantled or have perished by lapse of time, and there is 
no trace of any ancient buildings.” 

Yet another story relates how Raja Anand wanted to shift the early Chalukyan 
capital from Kalyani to Nanded, built a tank by constructing stone dykes and founded the 
hamlet of “ Nandgiri ” on one of the hillocks called Ratnagari. In the 4th century a 
branch of the Chalukya king's of Warangal ruled over Nanded. In Praiaparudra Taso- 
bhushan, the book of the Kakatiya kings of Warangal, it is mentioned that Nanda Deo of 
the royal Kakatiya dynasty reigned in the area with his capital at Nanded, and that 
Nandgiri at Nanded was constructed in his time. His son Somdeva ruled over Kandahar 
for a long time. The fort of Kandahar is popularly believed to l^ve been erected by 
Somdeva, but it may also be connected with Krishna III, the Rashtrakuta king of 
Malkhed, who is styled lord of Kandaharapura. It is surrounded by a ditch and a strong 
stone wall. Deglur contains an old temple of Ganda Maharaj, and Bhaisa another 
one built in the Hemadpanti style. 


THE GLORY THAT WAS NANDED 

Madhav Verman, the son of Sotndeva, was one of the ancestors of the Kakatiya 
rulers. During the regime of these the worship of Siva and his bullock Nandi was 
the order of the day, and the ruins of many a temple built in those days still proclaims 



94 


the glory that was Nanded. Madhav Verman was interested in breeding pedigree 
cattle, and to this day horses from all parts of India, and even from Kabul, Qandhar, 
Kathiawad, Nepal and Banaras take part in the ancient annual fair at Malegaon, in 
Kandahar taluq. 

In a copper plate found at Basim, Nanded is mentioned as Nandikal or Nandikada, 
which is more or less equivalent to Nandi Tat of the Puranas. Apart from Nanded and 
Kandahar, the localities known as Kowlas (Kailas) and Bichkunda (Muchkunda, the 
abode of Muchkund rishis), have also a historical background going back to the days 
of the Chalukyas and the Kakatiyas. 

Other places of interest originating in the Hindu period are the temple of Saraswati 
at Basar, the Narasimha temple at Nanded, and the Buddhistic and Jain temples at 
Nanded, Ardhapur and Kandahar. With the advent of Muslims in the Deccan, this 
area passed from the Chalukyas, Kakatiyas and the Yadavas to Alauddin Khilji and 
Muhammad Tughlaq. Then came the Bahmanis and the town of Nanded, being on the 
banks of the Godavari, assumed importance as a riverside trade centre and ferry-town for 
traffic between the north and Bidar, Hyderabad, Warangal and the Deccan. For the 
same reasons it became a military centre as well. 

Dmring the premiership of Mahmud Gawan a redistribution of the Subas took place 
and Nanded was included in the Suba of Mahor (Mahur), Balaghat. Gawan stayed at 
Nanded and Kandahar for some time, and for this reason the locality of Wazirabad came 
to be named after him, as he was known as Wazir Mahmud. In documents dating 
from Malik Ambar’s time, Nanded is mentioned as '' Peth Wazirabad.” In 1500, the 
Bahmanis yielded place to the Barid Shahis and Amir Barid established himself at Kanda- 
har and Bidar. Later the Nizam Shahi, Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi king s had their 
days. Malik Ambar, a sardar of the Nizam Shahi kings of .'Uunadnagar, war at Nanded 
when displaced by the Moghuls in the year 1602. 

During the Bahmani period some notable Muslim saints made their homes in the 
district. The principal among tliem were Hazrat Shah Makka Awlia, Shah Fathulla 
Nuri and Syed Shah Wall, Avho have their tombs at Nanded, the period of their pontificate 
being from 1051 to 1151 Hijri. Mention may also be made of Haji Sayyad Saidud- 
din Sarwar MakHdum, whose tomb is at Kandahar, where an annual Urs Is held even 
now. Two old mosques at Nanded were built by Malik Ambar and one by the Qjitb 
Shahis. A serai built by Mir Alam recalls the troublous days when the ambitions of the 
Marathas, the French, Tippu Sultan and the East India Company had made southern 
India a cauldron of suffering and iniquity. Long before that, with the coming of Guru 
Gobind Singhji in 1706, Nanded achieved an immortal place in the history of 


GURU GOBIND SINGHJI MAHARAJ 
^er the final battles of Anandpur, Chamkaur and Muktasar, when the Khalsa 



95 


Pantk had been placed on a solid foundation, the Tenth Guru withdrew himself from the 
political arena of the Punjab and retired to Damdama Sahib and wrote the Z^farnama^ 
a poignantly pathetic and forcible communique, to Aurangzeb who was then busy quel- 
ling disturbances in the Deccan. Charmed by the impressive spiritual and magnetic 
personality of the Guru, Aurangzeb invited him for a personal interview at Ahmadnagar 
and the Guru left for the Deccan. But Aurangzeb died while the Guru was still on his 
way, and in the civil war that followed Guru Gobind Singh supported Prince Shah Alam, 
who became Bahadur Shah I. Thus, there came to exist strong ties of goodwill and 
affection between the Guru and Bahadur Shah, who requested the former to accompany 
him to the Deccan. With his select cavaliers, the Guru accompanied Bahadur Shah. 
During his stay at Ujjain, Guru Gobind Singhji came to know of the valour and 
witchcraft of Madho Das Bairagl of Nanded, afterwards named as Banda Bahadur 
and he desired to meet him. Grossing the Narmada and the Tapd, the Guru and his 
party entered the Maratha territory which presented a sorry spectacle of the decline of the 
central power, and reached the banks of the Godavari at Abchalnagar in 1707. While 
Bahadur Shah left for Golconda to quell the rebellion of Kambaksh, the Guru stayed at 
Nanded and decided to settle down. 


THREW A DIAMOND IN THE GODAVARI 

The very first spot where he encamped at Nanded is appropriately marked and 
designated by the Sangat Sahib Gurdwara. At Banda Ghat, Madho Das paid his first 
respects to the Guru. A Lambada disciple offered a rai'e diamond at the feet of Guru 
Gobind Singhji, who, however, threw it away into the waters of the Godavari, and this 
place is known as Nagina Ghat. 

In the meantime Guru Gobind Singhji’s end drew near. One day when he was 
lecturing on God’s love for mankind irrespective of caste or creed, clan or country, and 
was attacking creeds which legalized the persecution of people differing in faith, he was 
stabbed by a Pathan fanatic. The wound was immediately dressed, and in a few months 
the Guru was able to go about and attend to his usual programme of work. Unfortuna- 
tely however, before the wound was quite healed he tried to draw a huge bow at an 
athletic tournament. The effort was too much for an invalid, and the stitches of the 
wound broke asunder, causing profuse bleeding. When he saw that his strength was 
failing and that his dissolution was approaching, he called his disciples and told them to 
hold the principles laid down in the Grantk Sahib as their Guru. His dissolution took place 
at the, age of 42 in 1708 A.D. — Samvat 1765 Vikram — on Sudhi 5th Kartik at midnight, 
and the body was cremated. The ashes were buried at a spot where now stands 
the Gurdwara of Huzur Sahib, Abchalnagar, at Nanded. 


THE HUZUR SAHIB GURDWARA 
There are various other legends and myths that have grown around the dissolution 



94 


the glory that was Nanded. Madhav Verman was interested in breeding pedigree 
cattle, and to this day horses from all parts of India, and even from Kabul, Qandhar, 
Kathiawad, Nepal and Banaras take part in the ancient annual fair at Malegaon, in 
Kandahar taluq. 

In a copper plate found at Basim, Nanded is mentioned as Nandikal or Nandikada, 
which is more or less eqiiivalent to Nandi Tat of the Puranas. Apart from Nanded and 
Kandahar, the localities known as Kowlas (Kailas) and Bichkunda (Muchkunda, the 
abode of Muchkund rishis), have also a historical background going back to the days 
of the Ghalukyas and the Kakatiyas, 

Other places of interest originating in the Hindu period are the temple of Saraswati 
at Basar, the Narasimha temple at Nanded, and the Buddhistic and Jain temples at 
Nanded, Ardhapur and Kandahar, With the advent of Muslims in the Deccan, this 
area passed from the Ghalukyas, Kakatiyas and the Yadavas to Alauddin Khilji and 
Muhammad Tughlaq. Then came the Bahmanis and the town of Nanded, being on the 
banks of the Godavari, assumed importance as a riverside trade centre and ferry-town for 
traffic between the north and Bidar, Hyderabad, Warangal and the Deccan. For the 
same reasons it became a military centre as well. 

During the premiership of Mahmud Gawan a redistribution of tlie Subas took place 
and Nanded was included in the Suba of Mahor (Mahur), Balaghat. Gawan stayed at 
Nanded and Kandahar for some time, and for this reason the locality of Wazirabad came 
to be named after him, as he was known as Wazir Mahmud. Ir> documents dating 
from Malik Ambar’s time, Nanded is mentioned as '' Peth Wazirabad.” In 1500, the 
Bahmanis yielded place to the Barid Shahis and Amir Barid established himself at Kanda- 
har and Bidar. Later the Nizam Shahi, Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi kings had their 
days. Malik x4mbar, a sardar of the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar, war at Nanded 
when displaced by the Moghuls in the year 1602. 

During tlie Bahmani period .some notable Muslim saints made thefr homes in the 
district. The principal among tliem were Hazrat Shah Makka Awlia, Shah Fathulla 
Nuri and Syed Shah Wali, who have their tombs at Nanded, the period of their ponlifiaite 
being from 1051 to 1151 Hijri. Mention may also be made of Haji Sayyud Saidud- 
din Sarwar MakKdum, whose tomb is at Kandahar, where an annual Ui-s is hold even 
now. Tw'O old mosques at Nanded were built by Malik Ambar aud one by the Qptb 
Shahis. A serai built by Mir Alam recalls the troublous days when the ambitions of the 
Marathas, the French, Tippu Sultan and the East India Gompany had made southern 
India a cauldron of suffering and iniquity. Long before that, with the coming of Guru 
Gobind Singhji in 1706, Nanded achieved an immortal place in the history of 


GURU GOBIND SINGHJI MAHARAJ 
After the final battles of Anandpur, Chamkaur and Muktasar, when the Khalsa 



95 


Pantii had been placed on a solid foundation, the Tenth Guru withdrew himself from the 
political arena of the Punjab and retired to Damdama Sahib and wrote the Z^farnama, 
a poignantly pathetic and forcible communique, to Aurangzeb who was then busy quel- 
ling disturbances in the Deccan. Charmed by the impressive spiritual and magnetic 
personality of the Guru, Aurangzeb invited him for a personal interview at Ahmadnagar 
and the Guru left for the Deccan. But Aurangzeb died while the Guru was still on his 
way, and in the civil war that followed Guru Gobind Singh supported Prince Shah Alam, 
who became Bahadur Shah I. Thus, there came to exist strong ties of goodwill and 
affection between the Guru and Bahadur Shah, v/ho requested the former to accompany 
him to the Deccan. With his select cavaliers, the Guru accompanied Bahadur Shah. 
During his stay at Ujjain, Guru Gobind Singhji came to know of the valour and 
witchcraft of Madho Das Bairagi of Nanded, afterwards named as Banda Bahadur 
and he desired to meet him. Grossing the Narmada and the Tapti, the Guru and his 
party entered the Maratha territory which presented a sorry spectacle of the decline of the 
central power, and reached the banks of the Godavari at Abchalnagar in 1707. While 
Bahadur Shah left for Golconda to quell the rebellion of Kambaksh, the Guru stayed at 
Nanded and decided to settle down. 


THREW A DIAMOND IN THE GODAVARI 

The very first spot where he encamped at Nanded is appropriately marked and 
designated by the Sangat Sahib Gurdwara. At Banda Ghat, Madho Das paid his first 
respects to the Guru. A Lambada disciple offered a rare diamond at the feet of Guru 
Gobind Singhji, who, however, threw it away into the waters of the Godavari, and this 
place is known as Nagina Ghat. 

In the meantime Guru Gobind Singhji’s end drew near. One day when he was 
lecturing on God’s love for mankind irrespective of caste or creed, clan or country, and 
was attacking creeds which legalized the persecution of people differing in faith, he was 
stabbed by a Pathan fanatic. The wound was immediately dressed, and in a few months 
the Guru was able to go about and attend to his usual programme of work. Unfortuna- 
tely however, before the wound was quite healed he tried to draw a huge bow at an 
athletic tournament. The effort was too much for an invalid, and the stitches of the 
wound broke asunder, causing profuse bleeding. When he saw that his strength was 
failing and that his dissolution was approaching, he called his disciples and told them to 
hold the principles laid down in the Granih Sahib as their Guru. His dissolution took place 
at the, age of 42 in 1708 A.D. — Samvat 1765 Vikram — on Sudhi 5th Kartik at midnight, 
and the body was cremated. The ashes were buried at a spot where now stands 
the Gurdwara of Huzur Sahib, Abchalnagar, at Nanded. 


THE HUZUR SAHIB GURDWARA 
There are various other legends and myths that have grown around the dissolution 



96 


of the Guru, but the Gurdwara of Huzur Sahib, Abchalnagar, is an amazing structure 
with a cupola and t\vo minarets. It is a sacred place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs, who 
hold this Gurdwara in great veneration. The present shrine was erected by Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh in 1837, and there are some magnificent specimens of marble mosaic on 
pillars as well as on the floor. The dome of the Gurdwara, the roof and the central 
verandah are heavily gold plated. During the Prime Ministership of Maharaja Chandu- 
lal a jagir of five villages was granted for Mandidlp and pujapatri of the Guru Sahib. The 
annual income of the Gurdwara is sometimes as much as one lakh of rupees. Apart 
from the main Gurdwara there are seven minor Gurdwaras, namely Hira Ghat, Sikhar 
Ghat, Mata Sahiba, Sangat Sahib, Maltekri, Banda Ghat and Nagina Ghat, each of 
which commemorates some miracle or notable incident in the life of Guru Gobind Singhji. 

The inner sanctuary of the Gurdwara, the Manji Sahib or the samadhi of Guru 
Gobind Singh Maharaj, is opened long before dawn and once the Head Pujari enters 
the samadhi the doors are closed after him. He bathes the Manji Sahib ^ Shashtras (wea- 
pons) and Poskaks (valuable garments) with water brought from the Godavari, cleans 
and arranges them. While this is being done inside, the Granthi Maharaj who is in the 
Chowki invokes the permission of the Guru Grantk Sahib for Prakash^ and the Ragis chant 
the hymn Asa-Ka-Var. This continues till 6 or 7 a.m. Then the Head Pujari comes 
out of the Mandir, and this is known as Prakash of Mandir Sahib> Then Ardashy and 
Pershad are offered to the Guru Granth Sahib, after which the Head Pujari opens all 
the four doors of the Mandir and inner precincts and Pershad is distributed to all. For 
nearly one hour Ragis sing kirtans, such as Anand Sahib which are followed by Ad 
Sree Guru Grantk katha. Once again between 10 and 11 there is offering of Karapershad 
and other Pershads. Kirtan Chowki charan kowl and katha of Dasam Granth Sahib follow 
during the day. In the evening Sodar Sahib’s kirtan is recited and Karapershad is 
offered. After distribution of the Pershad, Arti^ Chowki and Kirtan Sohalla take place and 
thereafter the function terminates. 


BHAISA 

This town in Madhol taluq possesses an old tank with an Idgah on its western bank, 
a temple dating from 11th to 13th century, three Muslim dargahs and a Jami Masjid. 

Other antiquities and archaeological remains in the taluq are at Basar and Sirala- 
Degaon. 


BILLOLI 

The mosque of Sarfaraz Khan, a Moghul governor in 1645, was built during the 
reign of Shah Jahan. 


KAULAS 

In the Deglur taluq, Kaulas has the Mahadeva temple dating from 13 th to 14th 



97 


century, the Khooni or bloody Masjid dating from 16th to 17th century, the shrine 
of the 17th century saint Bahlul Shah and the dargah of Shah Ziaul Haq. There is also 
an old fort here, which was wrested from the rajas of Warangal in 1323 A.D. by the 
Muslims. 


KANDAHAR 

A fort here is said to have been originally built by Somdeva, the raja of Kandahar, 
and later added to by Krishna III, the Rashtrakuta raja of Malkhed styled Lord of 
Kandaharpura,’* but there are inscriptions referring to Muhammad Tughlaq, Ibrahim 
Adil Shah and Aurangzeb. 

Notable features are many pieces of Turkish ordnance with names of engineers and 
dates on them. The Muharhmad Shahi Jami Masjid has inscriptions relating to Ibrahim 
Adil Shah and Nizam Shah. 




NIZaMABaD 


I 

*-NDUR was the original name of Nizamabad, Indur is a corrupted form of “ Indra- 
puri,” named after an ancient king. This king may have been Indradatta of the rebel 
Trikuntaka dynasty, circa 388 A.D., who ruled over the lower regions of the Narmada 
and the Tapti, or the mighty Vishnukundin Indravarman I, circa 500 A.D., or some other 
king of the same name and same dynasty. Historically obscure, Indur was conquered 
by Alauddin Khilji in 1311 and later formed part of the Bahmani and Qptb Shahi king- 
doms, and the Moghul Empire until it came under the Nizams, 

The original “ Indur District ” underwent large-scale territorial changes in 1905 
and the name Indur itself was changed to Nizamabad, after the railway line had been 
completed. 

To the natural beauty of rivers, canals, forests and the Nizamsagar project, must 
also be added the remarkable examples of temple architecture in the district. 


BODHAN 

The Deval Masjid here seems to have been originally a temple. The conversion is 
likely to have taken place during Muhammad Tughlaq’s time as indicated by two 
Persian inscriptions. Rashtrakuta inscriptions in Kannada-Telugu have also been 
found in Bodhan. 


DICHPALLI 

Some ten miles east of Nizamabad near Dichpalli there is a beautifully carved temple 
of Vaishanava. There had been no idols in tWs temple for a loi^ time but they were 
restored nearly three years ago. Bxiilt on a flat hillock and having a large tank in 
front, it is a picturesque landmark. It has exquisite carvings and circular columns 



100 


in Dravidian style and is enclosed by a strong masonry wall. 


JANKAMPET 

The old temple here has a central mandapa, ante-chamber, a shrine and a pillared 
hall styled as dharmashala. It is not, however, of very great architectural or artistic merits. 

NIZAMABAD CITY 

The oldest archaeological remains today are Jaina sculptures employed in fortifica- 
tions which date from 12th century A.D, The fort belongs to Qjuitb Shahi era. The 
tomb of a nameless saint is another feature. The temple of Kanteshwar though compa- 
ratively new is worthy of a visit. 

At Garuasamudram, a small village ten miles south of the town, there are tombs of 
three Armenians which date from 17th century, while about half a dozen miles to the west 
there is a famous temple of Hanuman where Swami Ramdas of Shivaji fame is supposed 
to have worshipped for some time. 



OSMANABAD 


A 

a district Osmaiiabad is quite recent but it has many places of protohistoric 
as well as historic importance which proclaim even today the glory of the ancient past. 

According to local tradition Sri Rama received divine guidance about the route 
to Lanka in the vicinity of Tuljapur near the Jumnajal hill. Here Sri Rama prayed 
to Devi Tuljabhavani who revealed the path, and the place is even today known as 
Ghat Saile. 

Tagara, whose ruins still remain unexplored in the town of Thair (Ter), was 
famous during the Andhra period as Tagara muslin and Paithan onyx were two of the 
commodities exported to Imperial Rome. 

Latur — corrupted from Lattalur — ^is a link with the Rashtrakutas of Manapura, 
King Krishna I of which dynasty was the author of the famous Kailasa at Ellora. It 
is not known whether Manapur or Lattalur was the original capital until it was shifted 
to Manayakheta by King Govinda III. Osmanabad was originally Dharasiva, a name 
lost in the history of Saivism. 

Osmanabad has been a frontier district of the State in more ways than one. Like 
Aurangabad and Nalgonda, it has had an aura of military importance inasmuch as it is 
a wild rocky area difficult to attack but easy to resist. Probably because the district 
was the nearest point of attack for the Marathas in their heyday that it came to assume 
a strat^c value for the Nizams. Historically, it has been a bone of contention between 
the Adil Shahis of Bijapur and Ahmadnagar. 

The district came tmder Muslim rule in the beginning of the 14th century, 
when it was annexed to the empire of Delhi by Alauddin Khilji. On the foundation of 
the Bahmani kingdom, it fell to that power, and, when that monarchy in turn dissolved, 
to the Sultans of Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. The conquest of the Deccan by Aurangzeb 
reunited it to Delhi, till the foundation of Hyderabad State in the early part of the 18th 
century. It was ceded to the British Government with the Raichur docA- under 



102 


the treaty of 1853, but was restored to the Nizam in I860, 

MOST PIGTURESQJJE PLAGE IN THE DEGGAN 

Six places of archaeological interest figure in the district — Naldrug, Owsa, Osmanabad, 
Parenda, Thair (Ter) and Tuljapur. Naldrug is an outpost town right on the 
frontier itself. The fort of Naldrug is situated above the ravine of the Bori river, 
and is one of the best fortified and most pictureque places in the Deccan. Meadows 
Taylor has given a very interesting and impressive description of the fort in his book 
The Story of My Life. Before the Muslim invasion in the 14th century it belonged to 
a local raja, probably a vassal of the Ghalukyas. It fell to the Bahmani dynasty who 
built the stone fortifications. After the division of the Bahmani kingdom in 1482, it 
was seized by the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, and was a bone of contention between them 
and the Ahmadnagar Sultans. Ali Adil Shah in 1558 not only added to the fortifications, 
but also erected a dam across the Bori, which afforded a constant supply of water to .the 
garrison. 


ANCIENT CAVES AND SHRINES 

Groups of caves known as the Dabar Lena, Chamar Lena and Lachandar Lena lie 
around the town of Osmanabad (Dharaseo), the first-mentioned group being Jain and 
Vaishanava excavations. Roughly the caves may be assigned to the period between 
A.D. 500 and 650. Hasangaon, 40 miles north-west of Naldrug, contains two large 
caves in a solitary hill, which were Brahmanical rock shrines. (Detailed information 
about these caves is given in Dharaseo or Osmanahad Caves obtainable from the Director 
of Archaeology, Hyderabad.) 


SACRED TO DEVI TULJABHAVANI 

Tuljapur, a town 20 miles north-west of Naldrug, is a famous place of Hindu pilgrim- 
age, In a ravine at the foot of the hill is the temple of Tuljabhavani, which is visited 
by Hindus from all parts of India, especially on the full moon of the Dassara festival, when 
a great jatra is held. It was here that the path to Lanka was revealed to Sri Rama by 
the goddess. 

The temple is situated on a hill, but one has to go down into the temple to reach 
‘ the deity. The original old temple was built nearly 800 years ago. The Maharajas of 
Kolhapur and Satara, and Ahalya Bai Holkar, are known to have built the huge outer 
structure of the temple. All Marathas believe in Tuljabhavani as their Kuldevata (family 
deity). Many costly orn^ents given by Shivaji are still used for puja on occasions of 
celebrations. There is one go-mukh . (cow’s mouth) inside the temple, through which 



103 


water falls continuously and ultimately goes to kallol teerth (tank) where pilgrims bathe. 

Behind the Bhavani temple there is another temple called Bharatiya Math which is 
situated in the valley. It is believed that the goddess goes there at night for playing chess 
with the gods and a chess-board and cowries are religiously kept in the Math. The cowries 
are worn by the Bhutyas, the Gondhalis and the Aradhis, who are a peculiar tribe of pro- 
fessional worshippers of Bhavani. 


MANKESAR 

Here are Mahadeva temples of 13th and 14th centuries of the Chalukyan type. The 
group is constructed of fine granite stone richly carved with figures and sculptures. 
Opposite the main temple, there is a ruined nandi on a pedestal adorned with an 
elephant frieze executed in high relief. 


NALDRUG 

The fort here is said to have been built originally by a Hindu raja who was a vassal 
of ihc Chalukyan kings of Kalyani. It was later included in the possession of the Bahmanis 
and subsequently was taken over by the Adil Shahi kings of Bijapur. The most interest- 
ing building inside the fort is the dam built across the river Bori. The dam and the Pani 
Mahal ‘ Water-Pavilion ’ which is built underneath in the middle of the dam, were 
designed by a Persian architect, Mir Md. Imadin, during the reign of Ibrahim Adil 
Shah IL A Persian inscription on the Mahal, dated 1613 A.D., records these facts. 
There is another Persian inscription of Ali Adil Shah corresponding to 1560 A.D. fixed 
on a mosque which mentions the construction of the fortifications and the mosque. 

OSMANABAD CITY 

The group of Jaina and Brahmanical caves excavated in a low rocky ridge have 
already been mentioned. 

The dargah of Hazrat Shamsuddin is a Muslim shrine of the 14th century. This 
dargah is much esteemed by both Hindus and Muslims. It is a square structure sur- 
mounted by a lofty graceful hemispherical dome and is decorated all round with bands of 
lotus petals. Over the entrance facing the south is a Persian inscription recording the 
date of the death of the saint as 730 A.D. Just opposite the doorway is the grave of the 
saint’s son, Tajuddin. 


OWSA TOWN (AUSA) 

Here, the fort is square in shape, surroxmded by a double wall and a moat all round, 
and is said to have been built by the Bijapm kings. It contains a large gun; 18 feet long. 



104 


with the name of Nizam Shah engraved on it. Most of the old buildings are in ruins, 
but an extensive underground building measures 76 by 50 feet, the roof of which forms 
the bottom of a large cistern. An old mosque was built dui'ing Aurangzeb’s viceroyalty 
of the Deccan, as is apparent from an inscription it bears. The Jami Masjid in the town 
is built in the Bijapur style of architecture, with a dome and facade of cusped arches. 

PARENDA 

The fort, erected by Mahmud Gawan, the celebrated Bahmani minister, contains 
several large guns mounted on bastions. Parenda was the capital of the Nizam Shahis 
for a short time after the capture of Ahmadnagar by the Moghuls in 1605. It was besieg- 
ed unsuccessfully by Shah Jahan’s general in 1630. It was, however, reduced by Aurang- 
zeb during his viceroyalty of the Deccan. The fortifications are in good order, but the 
old town is in ruins. Numerous ruins in the neighbourhood testify to the former 
populousness of the place. 


TER 

The village, situated about three miles from the railway station of that name and 
about 12 miles north-east of Osmanabad, on the Kurd wadi-Latur branch line, is believed 
by some to have occupied the site of Tagara of Ptolemy. It is even now notewor^* 
thy on account of the apsidal temple which it contains. The temple is an interesting 
replica of the rock-cut Buddhist chaityas of western India and the Pagodas of Mamal- 
lapuram as well as the basilicas of the Mediterranean zone. The building is a brick 
structure consisting of an apsidal shrine covered over with a barrel-shaped ridge-like 
vault and faced with a square flat-roofed mandapa. The large size of the bricks used in its 
construction indicates the antiquity of the building, but a modern wooden door fitted 
in the fore-wall of the mandapa, and some recent images of Vishnu in the shrine, 
mark the present dedication. Tagara muslin used to be fabricated here. 

There is also famous for Saint Gora Kumbhar, the potter around whom many 12th 
century legends centre. He was a devotee of god Vithal. Once his wife left the 
baby in his charge. In his devotion he forgot all about the baby, who unfortunately 
fell into the deep receptacle for clay and was drowned. A tremendous domestic storm 
arose, in which the wife not only abused the deity but actually threatened to break the 
murtu When Gora approached to her to save the idol she charged him in the name 
of Vithaldev himself not to touch her — this put an end to marital ties, though the two were 
reconciled. In despair, the wife got him married to her sister but unfortunately his father- 
in-law asked him to treat both sisters equally, so that he had to treat even the new wife 
as a sister 1 

One night the two sisters conspired and when the saint was asleep they took his 



105 


arms around them. When he awoke he was so horrified at the breaking of his oath that 
he cut off his hands. According to legend his hands were miraculously restored when 
he tried to raise them for clapping while attending a kirtan held by Saint Namdeo, his 
contemporary. 

Another legend says that on one occasion Namdeo and other devotees came on a 
visit, but Saint Gora started tapping their heads with his potter’s mallet. They were 
amazed as well as indignant. He then replied : “ I am only testing which head is pucca 
' and which kuicha^'^ pots and pans being tested in this manner. 




PARBH ANl 


P 

ARBHANI links up with the Stone Age. In the valleys of the Godavari and its 
tributaries, the Deccan trap is overlaid by gravels and clay beds in which layers of 
fossilized bones of extinct mammalia have been discovered, clearly establishing that this 
area was of some importance in the Stone Age. From Stone Age down to the legendary 
Rishi Agastya and onwards until the Asokan Age, Parbhani remained obscure, but 
Asoka’s southern conquests brought it into the picture of greater India inasmuch as it 
fringed upon the main routes to his empire in the south. 

Parbhani once formed part of the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri, the modern Daulat- 
abad, and was later conquered by Alauddin Khilji in the beginning of 1 4th century 
A.D. After the death of Muhammad Tughlaq it fell successively in the hands of the 
Bahmani and the Nizam Shahi Kings of Ahmadnagar. Incorporated into India it 
remained in the Moghul empire until the Hyderabad State came into being. 

The ruined fort at Parbhani is popularly believed to have been erected during the 
days of Yadava kings. There are many other small forts at different places in the 
district which commemorate the glory of the Yadavas. It was during the regime of 
those kings that the worship of the god Siva and his bullock Nandi was the order of 
the day and many a great temple all over the district still portrays the religious fervour 
of those days. 

The shrine of Naganath at Aundha in Hingoli taluq is a structure of great archaeo- 
logical importance, and contains one of the twelve Jyotirlingas of India. It had seven 
storeys up to the days of Aurangzeb. The present structure has a courtyard of 7,200 
square feet and is 60 feet high. It is adorned with hundreds of exquisitely carved figures 
of men, horses, elephants, bulls and monkeys. It is believed that this temple was built 
by a Pandava raja at a most fabulous cost. A pucca road connects Aundha with Chondi 
railway station on Purna-Hingoli line and there is direct connection by bus from Parbhani. 

The Jain temple of Parasnath near Jintur is carved inside a rock with a narrow dark 



108 


passage leading to the domed building. There are serveral figures beautifully carved in 
stone^ and the central figure is 1 2 feet high carved in a greenish stone. 

An unassuming temple near Bamni standing at the confluence of the Saraswali 
and the Purna recalls architectural styles of more than a thousand years ago. The shrine 
of Ramazan Shah, situated on the summit of a hill near Khari in the Hingoli taluq, is 
enclosed by a strong wall 30 feet high and 1,200 feet square. This saint is said to have 
been converted to Islam, and his shrine is visited by both Hindus and Muslims. Besides 
these, a large number of Hemadpanti temples are found throughout the district. The 
district was for a long time the battlefield between the kings of Ahmadnagar and the 
Imad Shahis of Berar. 

Important dargahs in the district are those of Khani Alam at Basmat, of Hazrat 
Shamsuddin and Hazrat Shah Mastan at Jintur and of Hazrat Shah Ismail at Kunri. 

Old forts are at Anthanli, Pathri, Badgaon and Amargarh. 


NAGANATH TEMPLE, AUNDHA 

Aundha is a village in the Hingoli taluq of Parbhani district and can be approached 
from Chondi — a station on the Purna-Hingoli railway, Aundha lying only eight miles 
from there. 

The temple is famous for containing one of the twelve Jyotirlingas. It is star- 
shaped in plan like all Ghalukyan temples, the arrangement being — a large square 
mahamandapa in the middle, three porticoes on the north, south and west and the 
shrine in the east. The pillars supporting the roof of the mahamandapa are extremely 
graceful, lofty, octagonal in form and most exquisitely carved. The sculptural decora- 
tion of the doorways of the shrine and the porticoes is also of a superior order. The 
outer face of the edifice is also gorgeously decorated in true Ghalukyan fashion by means 
of horizontal and vertical bands of sculptured friezes, interpersed and relieved at 
equal intervals by means of plainer bands. Dr Yazdani has rightly compared the 
workmanship and detail of the temple with those of Halebid — vide Annual Report of the 
Archaeological Department, Hyderabad, for the year 1917-18, 


HINGOLI TOWN 

Hingoli is a great cotton mart, and is famous as one of the first places in the Deccan at 
which operations for the suppression of thugi were commenced about 1833. 

Many prehistoric sites in various places in the taluq have yielded neolithic and 
megalithic artifacts, flakes, cores, stone implements and stone objects. 



R A I C H U R 


R 

JL ^AICHUR district has a direct link with the Stone Age, 7,000 years ago at least, 
when man was yet an infant. Recent discoveries take ns back only to the neolithic period 
but this is by itself evidence of previous civilizations. Who were those people and what 
was their ch^ilization is unknown, but they have left us weapons, implements and bones. 
It is also not known definitely ^vhether Raichur had any importance during the Vedic 
and the Epic eras of Indian Histoiy, but popular tradition identifies the Kishkinda of 
Ramayana as Anegundi and Vijayanagar on the opposite bank of the Tungabhadra, 
both in Raichur district. A part of the army of Sri Rama on its march against Ravana 
passed through tiie district. 

It is not unlikely that Ikshvaku colonists gradually tiickled down through Ujjain 
and Vidharba, brought civilization, to this area and named the Krishna after the hero 
of Mahabharata, The name Ikshvaku occurs in the Rig Veda and the Ikshvakus were 
connected with the Purus or the Pauravas (Vedic Index Vol. I P. 75). In the Puranas 
the royal family of Ayodhya is represented as having descended from a king named Iksh- 
vaku, and according to the Vishnu Purana, of the 100 sons of Ikshvaku 48 ruled in Dakshina 
or the south. One Ikshvaku inscription at Nagarjunakonda also discloses that even 
Buddha was descended from the illustrious Ikshvakus. But this protohistoric darkness 
melts in the light of the Asokan edtics and discoveries of coins, figurines and other anti- 
quities in the district, which establish its importance during the Buddhist period. Dur- 
ing the days of Andhra supremacy it probably did not figure much, although coins of the 
Satavahana period have been discovered in the district. The fort at Raichur, the Gad- 
wal Samasthan and the Anegundi traditions go back to the days of the Kakatiyas of 
Warangal, the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Vijayanagar empire. After the Tughlaq 
conquest, it fell first to the Bahmanis and then to the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, For some 
time it formed a part of the Moghul empire till Hyderabad State came into existence. 

Maski in Lingsugur taluq is one of the oldest sites in the State. Here .excavations 



no 


have brought to light remains of the neolithic age — bones, flints, implements, — and of the 
Asokan and Buddhist ages. A miniature head of Buddha in crystal which dates from 
somewhere between 200 to 300 B.G. is an exquisite discovery. Coins discovered tell the 
tale of the Satavahana dynasty whose last great emperor was Gautamiputra Swami Sri 
Yajna Satakarni, area 186 A.D. What happened in this part of Andhradesa after the 
Satavahanas is the usual history of the Saka usurpers, the Cholas, the Pallavas and their 
successors, and of the two Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Kalachuris. Mask! is 
indeed an antiquarian’s delight. 

The forts at Adhoni, Anegundi, Deodrug, Koppal, Alampur, Mudgal, Malihabad 
and Raichur are of historic importance. 

Deodrug was the stronghold of the poligars of the Bedar, fearless ”, tribe who were 
so powerful that the first of the Nizams sought their alliance. The fort is walled on 
three sides and the fourth or the western side is barred by hills. 

The hill fort at Koppal is very old but its lower fortifications were rebuilt by French 
engineers xmder Tipu Sultan. The fort also figured as the stronghold of Bhima Rao in 
1857. The fortifications consist of tw^o forts, the upper fort is situated on the lofty and 
insulated summit of a hill, about 400 feet above the ground. Sir John Malcolm described 
it as the strongest place he had seen in India. 

Very little is known about the Hindu origin of the fort in Adhoni, In 1347, Alauddin 
Bahmani, and in 1375 Mujahid ShahBahmani, captured the fort. It was subsequently 
under the Rajas of Vijayanagar, but after the battle of Talikotta in 1565 it was conquered 
by the Bijapur kings. 

An old Hindu temple, built in 13th century of lime and stone with sculpture on 
the walls, has a black stone slab bearing an inscription in the Devanagri characters. 

The fort in Malihabad is an ancient military structure of the Hindu period, which is 
now in a dilapidated condition. A pair of elephants carved in red stone is placed in front 
of a gateway inside the fort. It has a Kannada-Telugu inscription of the Kakatiya 
rajas. 

The Mudgal fort was the seat of the Yadava governors of Deogiri in 1250, It came 
successively into the possession of the rajas of Warangal, the Bahmani and Bijapur Sultans, 
and lastly it fell to Aurangzeb. There is a small Roman Catholic colony in the town, 
whose ancestors were originally converted by one of St Xavier’s missionaries from Goa. 
The church was built at an early date and contains a picture of the Madonna. 

Gadwal is another historic locality whose origin is lost in antiquity. The earliest 
trace is the conferment of the status of Sarnagoud over six paragnas by King Pratapa 
Rudra Deva upon Bukka Polavi Reddi, the ruler of Gadwal. Gadwal has an interesting 
fort, a great temple, the Garudasthamba temple and the Sri Keshava temple with the 
dwajasthamba. 

In Manvi besides the temples of the Ramashimha and Venkateshwara there is a 
temple of Marothi which is on a hill to the west of the town. Beside this temple is a 



Ill 


large slab of stone having a long Kannada inscription, A similar inscription is near 
a wall on the ruined fort. 


ALAMPUR 

The gorges of the Krishna in the Alampur taluq are of romantic interest inasmuch 
as they are believed to have been the source of diamonds in medieval times. The Gorge 
of Diamonds in the legend of Sindbad the Sailor and the Roc is also believed to have 
been one of these gorges. 

‘^Dakshina Kashi,” or Banaras of the south is how Bala-Brahmesvara or, as now 
known, Alampur, is termed by tradition, and the euphonym is well-merited by the many 
sacred temples on the banks of the holy Tungabhadra. 

Here history and legend have consorted together with stone and sculpture from 
times immemorial, and here can be seen the living footprints of the past from Stone Age 
down through prehistory and protohistory to the great days of the Satavahanas, the early 
and later Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, Kalachuriyas and Kakatiyas, the last of the 
Andhra kings. 

“The prosperous Chalukyan family of world-praised manavyasa gotra, descendants of 
Hareeti, who became prosperous by the favour of Saptamatrika, who obtained a series of 
auspices by the shelter of god Kumara, who susbdued all kings at the mere sight of emblem 
of Varaha obtained by the grace of Almighty Narayan,” is an inscription on the ramparts 
of the ruined ancient fort recalling the glory of the Chalukyas while an inscription at 
Devadroni Tirtha refers to the reign of Vijayadatta Ghalukya. 

It was the great grandson of Pulakesin II who had the prakara-bandh^ or rampart wail, 
built to stem the waters of the Tungabhadra from flooding into the Brahmesvara Temple, 
the construction being carried out by Isanacarya Swami Bhattapada. The date corres- 
ponds to May 3 and 4, 714 A.D. 

At one time there was the Brahmapuri University here, and two of its professors 
Trilochana Muninadha Pandita and Ekanta Desikadi Pandita were honoured by kings 
and queens. 

“ Virabalanjya Samaya,” commercial syndicates, also honoured them in the days of 
the Kalachuris and the Kakatiyas, and Veeragallulus of western Andhra period have 
also been found here. 

The Brahmesvara and the Papnasa groups of Temples at Alampur constitute an 
important stage in the evolution of temple architecture in south India, and an affinity 
to Ellora and Ajanta is noticeable. 

Alampur has over a dozen inscriptions recording various gifts made by the later 
Chalukyas. The Kakatiyas and the rulers of Vijayanagar seem to have made no addi- 
tions to the temples of Alampur but inscriptions of their times prove that Alampur 
continued to occupy an important place among the religious shrines of the south. 

At Alampur the Tungabhadra takes a turn to the north and so acquires sanctity 



112 


and imparts holiness to the temples consecrated at this spot. 

Certainly the Visvesvera, the Visalaksi, the Duntti-Ganesa and the Kala Bhairava 
Temples of holy Banaras have their counterparts in the Brahmesvara, the Jogulamba^ 
the Duntti-Ganesa and the Kala-Bhairava shrines and Alampur well deserves to be the 
Dakshina-Kashi, '' Banaras of the South.” other parallels are also not wanting, including 
64 ghats in both places. 

There are two main clusters of temples — the Brahmesvara, and the Papnasa, the 
former inside the fort and the latter half a mile away from Alampur. 

The leading temple in the Brahmesvara cluster of nine is triple-shrined with three 
deities consecrated on three sides of a many-pillared hall facing the river. The nine 
temples Nava-Brahma group of temples are Bala-Brahma, Garuda-Brahma, Svarga- 
Brahma, Padma Brahma, Traka-Brahma, Arka-Brahma, Kumara-Brahma, Vira- 
Brahma, and Visva-Brahma. 

Of these Bala-Brahma is venerated most. The inner plan and decoration of these 
temples bear no affinity to the Indo- Aryan temples but have a striking resemblance to the 
plans and carvings of some of the rock-cut temples of western India as the projected 
porches of these temples are identical in form to the portico of Gave XIX, Ajanta. The 
temples have a central approach leading to the shrine in the form of a nave, with an aisle 
on either side, which as in the case of the Buddhist chaityas, are separated from the former 
by rows of pillars. The shrines are square with circumambulatory passage around, Tu 
imitation of the rock-cut architecture, walls are closed but windows fitted with exquisite 
trellis screens have been provided for ventilation. The carving of the pillars and archi- 
traves are identical with those of the Buddhist and Brahmanical caves of western India, 
so much so that on entering the temples one has to remind himself that he is inside a 
temple and not in a rock-cut shrine. 

The sikfaaras of the temples, according to Gousens, are ** of an unusual model parti- 
cularly the sphere which is the frustum of a square pyramid surrounded by a large and 
very compressed spheroid.” 

Alampur has indeed a wealth of exquisite delights for the historian, the antiquarian, 
the archaeologist and the painter, scultptor and art-lover which have to be seen to be 
appreciated. 

Other interesting places are the Suryanarayana the Narasimha-alaya, the Muslim 
dargah and the magnificent gateways of the fort. The fort was built by Vijayanagar rajas 
and subsequently conquered by Muslim kings. It has three ditches and 30 bastions, 

Alampur is six miles from the metre guage railway station of the same name in 
Raichur district, and can be easily reached from Hyderabad or Guntakal in Madras. 

ANEGUNDI 

Anegundi recalls the days of the great Vijayanagar kingdom, for just across the Tunga- 



113 


bhadra is Hampi, the ruined capital of the forgotten empire — an empire which has been 
praised in glowing terms even in The Thousand and One Mights which gives a graphic des- 
cription of the splendour of Vijayanagar. 

Both Hampi and Anegundi were destroyed by the*Muslim confederacy after the great 
battle of Talikotta (1565). The confederacy consisted of the kings of Ahmadnagar, 
Bijapur, Bidar and Golconda. The Vijayanagar armies were led by Sedasivaraya and 
his brothers, and the Vijayanagar army was 82,000 horses, 9,00,000 foot and 2,000 
elephant strong. The Muslim army was comparatively smaller but the battle seems to 
have been decided by the heavy artillery used by the Muslims. The battle is said to have 
been joined on January 5, 1565, and the number slain computed at 1,00,000. 

Rajas of Anegundi are lineal descendants of the kings of Vijayanagar. The 
Vijayanagar dynasty ruled from 1336 to 1565. Anegundi means * elephant-pit ’ 
being the place where the elephants of the Vijayanagar kings were kept. 

The ancient town of Anegundi which has also been identified by some scholars with 
Kong-Kien-na-pu-le (Kunkanapura) of Hiuen Tsang is in a state of complete ruin now. 
The remains of magnificent buildings of the Vijayanagar dynasty are still traceable and 
there are fine specimens in the pillars of the Oncha Appa-Matha and the screens and 
scupture of the Ganesa temple. The pillars are of jet black basalt and are deeply carved. 
The sculptures appear in relief on the surface of the pillars and are similar in design and 
workmanship to the pillars in the Huvina Hadgatta temple in the Bellary district. 

The ceiling of the Oncha Appa Matha has also some paintings which consists of 
devices still in vogue in Rajputana and northern India, In one panel there is a figure of 
Siva with a long beard riding on five female acrobats who have joined themselves in the 
form of an elephant. 

In another panel the same deity is riding on a group of five women who have united 
themselves together in the form of a horse. There is also ^palki formed of women in the 
same style. The outlines of the figures are weak and the colours are insipid. They 
probably belong to the 17th century. 


GABBUR 

At Gabbur the temples of Bhangar Basappa, the Vishvesvara temple, the Ishwar temple 
(Gannigudi Mutt), the Venkateshwara temple, the Ghandi Gate temple, the Hanuman 
temple, the temple near Jami Masjid and Male Sankara^'s temple are worth seeing. 
Gabbur is in Deodrug taluq. 


ITTAGI 

Ittagi is a small village in Raichur district some three miles to the south of Benni- 
koppa railway station between Koppal and Gadag. The Mahadeva temple situated 



114 


in this village is one of the finest Ghaliikyan temples and fully justifies the title 
‘ emperor among temples ’ (devalaya chakravarti) given to it by the founder. 

The plan of the temple comprises a shrine with an ante-chamber^ a closed hall with 
porches on either side of it towards the north and south, and a pillared hall which is open 
at the sides. The temple faces east, and the great open hall at this end was originally 
supported upon sixty-eight pillars. 

The slabs of the ceiling of the middle apartment of the hall have been carved into a 
rich arrangement of hanging arabesque foliage and makaras which spring from the jaws 
of a kintimukha mask. The convolutions of the design with their circling excrescences 
and bwildering whorls form a most luxuriant pattern. 

Beautiful wreaths of filigree are repeated as ornament in the recessed panels of the 
walls below and in two places, one on either side of the shrine, serve as window-frames, the 
spaces between the rolls forming the lights. The three principal niches on the shrine walls, 
boldly accentuated by their deep projecting cornices, are now empty, their images having 
disappeared. 

The beautiful inscription in flowing Kannada verse set up in a hall adjacent to the 
temple states that this temple was built in A.D. 1112 by Mahadeva, a general (Dandana- 
yaka) of the Western Chalukya king, Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI of Kalyani. 

This temple is almost unrivalled in this part of the country both in the magnificence 
of its architectural style and its luxuriant decorative detail. 


KALLUR 

There are some old 13th century temples in the village and a Hanuman temple outside 
wherein are two beautiful old pieces of sculpture one representing Ganesa and the other 
Saptamatrika (Seven Mothers). 

There is another temple called Mukandcshwara situated to the west of the village. 
It seems to be the oldest shrine in the village; its pillars having some good carvings. The 
bases of the pillars are covered with bas-relief representing floral designs, animal figures 
and droll subjects. The superstructure of the temple excepting the sikhara seems to 
have been built in Bahmani or Adil Shahi period as is obvious from the turrets, the 
friezes and other Muslim motifs. 

To the north of Mukandeshwar temple, at a distance of about a furlong and a half, 
is a small temple in which an image of Kali, locally known as Karamma, has been enshrin- 
ed. The fourth shrine is not in use. The fifth temple is called Pelommal Gudi. The 
sixth temple is known as Venkateshwargudi. There are three inscriptions in the village. 
One of the records has been fixed opposite Karamma’s temple. The other inscription is 
carved on a piece of sculpture representing an elephant and the last inscription is close to 
the well. 

KUSHTAGI 

There are Hindu tcmpl^ at Bergi, Haxnsasagar, Holigiri, Para, Paratgiri, Kushtagi, 



115 


Rampur, Santgadh and Vajarbanda. There is also a mosque at Kushtagi. 

LINGSUGUR 

In this taluq there is an old 8th century fortress on a rock, situated between the two 
tributaries of Krishna at Jaldrug. From an inscription in the fort, it appears that the 
fort was built by one of the Yadava rajas of Devagiri (Daulatabad) about the close of 
the 12th century. 

There are numerous prehistoric sites in this taluq, while at Honhalli and Wendalli 
ruins of ancient smelting factories have been found. Wendalli is well-known for its gold 
working, 

MASKI 

The archseological importance of Maski has already been mentioned, but it has also a 
link with the Asokan age. 

In the neighbourhood of the town under a canopied boulder is carved an Asokan 
edict in Brahmi Script, The importance of this inscription lies predominantly in its 
mention of the fact that Asoka was the author of the edict, 

Maski (“ Masangi” or “ Suvarnagiri,” town of gold) is 17 miles from Lingsugur 
in Raichur district. 


MUDGAL 

Mudgal fort has already been mentioned but Mudgal is also famous in history as the home 
of Parthal, the Helen of the South, for whom two mighty kingdoms went to war — the 
Bahmani and the Vijayanagar kingdoms. The Cambridge History of India gives the event 
as below, 

'Tn 1406 Harihara II died, and was succeeded by his son, Bukka II, and in the same 
year occurred the romantic episode of the goldsmith’s daughter of Mudgal, a strange 
occurrence, but reasonably well attested- 

‘*A poor goldsmith and his wife, living near Mudgal, are said to have had a daughter 
named Parthal, of such surpassing beauty and brilliant accomplishments that her fame 
spread far and wide, and was carried by a Brahman who had been her instructor to the 
court of Bukka, who sent messengers to demand her of her parents. They, regarding the 
proposal as an honour, were disposed to comply, but the girl declined it. Bukka crossed 
the Tungabhadra with 5,000 horse, and sent a party to Mudgal to abduct the girl, but 
news of the raid had preceded it, and by the time that the party reached Mudgal, Parthal 
and her parents had fled. Meanwhile, Feroz the Bahmani king learnt of Bukka's raid, 
promptly went to war and defeated the invaders. 

After his return to Ferozabad the king sent to Mudgal for the beautiful Parthal 
and her parents. The girl was given in iparriage to Hasan Khan, his son, and the parents 



116 


received gifts in money and grant of their native village. It was probably on this occasion 
that the goldsmiths of the Deccan were permitted once more to follow their ancestral 
calling as bankers and money-changers, from w^hich they had been debarred by the edict 
of Muhammad I.” 


RAICHUR 

The Raichur Fort, according to an inscription on a huge stone (42 ft, by 3 ft.) was 
built by Gore Gangaya Ruddivaru, a minister of the raja of Warangal, in 1294, The 
country round Raichur was the battle-ground of the ancient Hindu and Jain dynasties as 
well as of the Muslim and Hindu kingdoms of Gulbarga and Vijayanagar. After the 
decline of the Bahmani power towards the close of the fifteenth century, it formed 
part of the Bijapur kingdom. 

Upon the subjugation of Bijapur and Golconda by Aurangzeb, Raichur was garri- 
soned by the Moghuls. A short distance from the west gate of the fort are the remains 
of a strongly built palace. The fortifications form a square of large stones 12 feet long 
by three feet thick, laid on one another without any cementing material. They consist 
of two walls, inner and an outer, and are surrounded on three sides by a deep ditch, 
while on the fourth or southern side there is a hill. The outer fortifications and the 
gateways were constructed by Ibrahim Adil Shah about 1549. The inner fort has two 
gateways and the outer three. The fort contains an old gun over 20 feet long. The 
Jami Masjid in the town was built in 1618. 

The Ek-Minar Masjid, according to a Persian inscription on its threshold, was cons- 
tructed by Ambar in 919 A.H. in the reign of Mahmud Shah Bahmani. The architec- 
tural characteristic of this mosque is that as its name itself signifies it has only one minaret 
which is about 65 feet high standing just above the entrance in the south-east corner 
of the courtyard of the mosque and was probably intended to serve as an azan tower ’’’ 
like the Qutb Minar at Delhi. It consists of two storeys and gradually tapers upwards 
ending in a rounded dome of Bahmani style. 

Some distance from the Ek-Minar Mosque is Yatim Shah’s mosque, adjoining which 
is the Kati Darwaza. The other notable gateways are the Maccai Darwaza, Naurangi 
Darwaza and Khandaq Darwaza. The Naurangi Darwaza appears to be a Hindu 
structure and one of the bastions bears a w^ell-carved figure of a Naga king with a crown 
of five-headed serpent. 



WARANGAL 


G 

RE AT lakes, historic monuments, temples and forts make Warangal an interesting 
district for the pilgrim, the historian, the archaeologist and the nature lover. Warangal 
itself is not very ancient, but Hanamkonda and legends surrounding it seem to link the 
area up with the great Vishnukundins, and other previous dynasties of the Buddhist and 
pre-Buddhist periods of Indian history. The district originally formed a portion of the 
ancient kingdom of the Andhras who had subdued the whole of the Deccan. 


THE KAKATIYAS 

The Kakatiyas started as the generals and commanders of the Ghalukyas of Kalyani, and 
won the favour of their masters so well that Somesvara I granted the district {visaya) of 
Hanamkonda (Anamkonda) to Prola I, son of Beta I, Prola I’s son. Beta II, continued 
as a subordinate of the Ghalukyas but his son, Prola II, declared independence after the 
death of Vikramaditya VI and founded the Kakatiya dynasty. 

His son Rudradeva was an equally capable warrior, and these two rulers were res- 
ponsible for conquering the greater part of Telingana. The coastal region lying towards 
the east of Telingana was then under the Velanandu rulers who were the feudatories of the 
Chalukya-Gholas. Rudradeva led several campaigns into this region but it finally came 
under Kakatiya rule only in the reign of Rudradeva’s brother’s son, Ganapati, who 
ascended the throne in A.D, 1199. 

Ganapati was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty, and his kingdom extended 
from Gondwana in Madhya Pradesh to Kanchi near Madras, and from the Bay of Bengal 
in the east to Bidar and Hyderabad in the west. His capital was Orugallu or Ekasila- 
nagara, modern Warangal, which he fortified. His extensive kingdom naturally brought 
him into conflict with the neighbouring kingdoms of the Hoysalas and the Pandyas. It 
was during this period that the famous Telugu poet Tikkana adorned the court of Mariu- 



118 


masiddhi, the Telugu-Chola ruler of Nellore and a feudatory of Ganapati. 

After Ganapati’s long rule of 62 years, came his daughter Rudrama Devi (A.D. 1260- 
1296) in whose reign the Venetian traveller Marco Polo arrived at the famous Andhra 
harbour of Motupalli on the eastern coast and visited the Andhradesa. 

In his account of travels Marco Polo records that Andhra was famous for its diamonds 
and superfine cloth woven with yam finer than gossamer. 

Rudrama Devi was no effiminate ruler. She dressed like a man, rode on elephant 
and horse and was actually addressed as Rudradeva Maharaj as if she was a man. The 
Yadavas of Devagiri wished to take advantage of a woman on the throne and led an in- 
vasion, but she put up an able defence and repulsed the invaders. 

Pratap Rudra (A.D. 1296-1323) who succeeded Rudrama Devi was her daughter’s 
son, and is renowned in Sanskrit literature as Vira Rudra. He wrested Kanchi from the 
Pandyas and drove them beyond Tiruchirrapalli. But he had to encounter several in- 
vasions of the Sultans of Delhi who were bent on reducing the Kakatiya kingdom to 
subordination. For over twenty years, from A.D. 1303, Pratap Rudra maintained his 
kingdom intact and according to Hindu accounts successfully resisted the Muslim invaders 
on six successive occasions failing only on the seventh and last occasion in A.D. 1323. 

The Kakatiya kingdom was finally overcome in A.D. 1323 by prince Ulugh Khan 
who later ascended the Delhi throne, in A.D. 1325, as Muhammad Tughlaq. Ulugh 
Khan took Pratap Rudra prisoner, and after taking over the administration of the king- 
dom and appointing necessary officers, he returned to Delhi. While being led as a 
prisoner to Delhi, Pratap Rudra committed suicide on the banks of the Narmada, unable 
to bear the bitterness of humiliation and defeat. 

Originally followers of Jainism, the Kakatiya rulers patronized Saivism from the time 
of Prola II. The Pasupata sect of Saivism in particular gained in strength and numbers 
at this time. Most of these religious leaders were renowned scholars and monasteries were 
centres of learning, and hospitals as well. Great expansion of commerce, especially sea- 
borne trade, was responsible for the increase in the wealth and prosperity of the kingdom 
during this period. The numerous temples constructed by the Kakatiya kings and their 
feudatories contributed to the progress of architecture and sculpture. ^ 

Learning and literature in Sanskrit and Telugu advanced to a high degree of achieve- 
ment, as testified to by numerous scholars and authors of repute. A certain Virabhallata- 
desika is renowned for his encyclopaedic learning {sarva-sastra’-msarada) and Agastya, 
another great writer and author of Balabharata and Jsfalakirii Kaumudi in Sanskrit, is often 
identified with Vidyanatha the author of the famous work on Alankara Sastra called Pratapa^ 
hidra Tasobhusana. Jayapa, the commander of the elephant corps of Ganapati, is the author 
of Nrttaratnavali and even the renowned Sanskrit poet Sakalyamalla is generally assigned 
to this period. In Telugu there is the excellent popular work R^an^cmatha JRarmyammu by 
Gona Buddha Reddi and the equally famous Basava Puranamu and PavMtaradhya Charitamu 
by P^uriki Somanatha, all in easy flooring dvipada meter. Bhaskara-Ramayanamu is 



119 


another excellent product of this time. Pratap Rudra himself is reputed to have composed 
a work in Telugu called Nitisara but unfortunately no copy of this work is now available. 

With the disappearance of the Muslim power, about A.D. 1335-36, zAndhra split up 
into a number of petty kingdoms, the earliest of which was the coastal kingdom of eastern 
and north-eastern Andhra under Prolaya Nayaka with his capital near Kunavaram on the 
Godavari, not far from modern Bhadrachalam. The next was the kingdom of Telingana 
with headquarters at Warangal recovered from the Muslims by the able warrior Kapaya 
Nayaka w^ho was cousin (son of father’s brother) of Prolaya Nayaka. When Prolaya 
Nayaka died without issue his kingdom was united with that of Kapaya Nayaka. The 
second was the kingdom of the Reddis founded by Prolaya Verna Reddi with its capital 
first at Addanki and later at Kondavidu in Guntur district. The third was the kingdom 
of the Padma-Velamas founded by Recherla Singamanaya with its capital at Rajukonda. 
The fourth was the kingdom of Vijayanagar founded by Harihara and Bukka under the 
wise guidence and patronage of the great sage Vidyaranya. 

In 1422, Warangal was finally captured by the Bahmani troops, and on the break- 
up of that kingdom it fell to the Qutb Shahis of Golconda. Shitab Khan became the 
Qutb Shahi governor of Warangal. He slowly succeeded in carving out for liim a 
separate principality comprising of Khammamet, Nalgonda and Warangal and became 
independent. 

As lovers of art and literature the Kakatiya kings made a name in history. The 
best specimens of architecture of their age are the 1000-Pillar Temple at Hanam- 
konda, the temple at Palampet popularly known as Ramappa temple and the Warangal 
fort. Of the best irrigation works which have stood the test of time are the Pakhal, 
Ramappa and Laknavaram lakes. 

The name Warangal is a corrupt form of the word “ Orukal ” or “ Orugallu 
which means 'one stone*. According to some inscriptions in Sanskrit this town was also 
called Ekopala, Ekasila, Ekopalapuri or puram all of which refer to the solitary cliff in 
the centre of the magnificent fort built here by the kings of Kakatiya dynasty and used as 
their capital. 

Warangal or Varankal is also believed to be the Korun Kula of Ptolemy, while 
another name is Akshalingar, evidently the Yeksilanagar or Yeksilapatan mentioned by 
Raghunath Bhaskar in his Aravachan Kosh. 

The city was surrounded by two walls ; the outer one, which is of mud, is said to 
have been 25 miles in circumference. Traces of it are still extant, and the railway 
cuts through it in two places. The inner wall of stone is pierced by four arches and the 
gateways are remarkable for their strength. Both walls date from the 13th century. 

For hundreds of years, both Hanamkonda and Warangal have been renowned for 
their industrial importance, and Marco Polo wrote of Warangal, " in the kingdom are 
made the best and most delicate buckrams (cotton stuff ) and those of highest price; in 
sooth they look like tissue of spider’s web. There is no king or queen in the world but 



120 


might be glad to wear them/* 


THOUSAND-PILLAR TEMPLE 

The temple of Hanamkonda, one of the suburbs of Warangal, is considered to be 
one of the finests specimens of the architecture and sculpture of the Kakatiya period. 

Founded by Ganapati the temple is mentioned in Pratap Charitra and, like all 
earlier Ghalukyan temples, it is star-shaped and triple-shrined, the three shrines being 
dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya respectively. 

The shrines have no deities, the pedestals inside being fitted with black basalt lingams. 
But the perforated and ornamented stone screens on the respective doors of the shrines 
contain the effigies of the three gods. 

The most notable features of this temple are the richly carved pillars and lintels, 
the delicately pierced screens and the most carefully finished sculptures. The black 
basalt Nandi or the sacred bull, in front of the temple, is a splendid specimen of sculp- 
ture in monolith. 

A large black basalt slab, fixed near the eastern entrance and inscribed with Kan- 
nada-Telugu characters, records the events and the date, 1164 A.D., of the construction 
of the temple. 

This record is extremely important inasmuch as it gives a geneological table of the 
builder of the temple, King Ganapati, and contemporaneous events, 

WARANGAL FORT 

King Ganapati began the construction of this fort in 1199 and Rudrama Devi 
completed it in 1261 A.D. A large temple in the centre of the fort which was presum- 
ably under construction, has been recently excavated. The boundary of the original 
temple was marked by four large elaborately carved gateways facing the four cardinal 
points. They bear a striking similarity to the famous gateways of Sanchi, and are very 
imposing to look at. 

The fort has two walls, the inner one being of stone and the outer of mud, surrounded 
by a moat nearly 72 feet wide and 56 feet deep. Traces of a third earthen wall are visible 
near the \dllages of Thimmapur and Narasimalingudem, six miles south of Hanam- 
konda. According to a chronologist this wall had a circumference of thirty miles, the 
largest of its kind in India, Other notable structures inside the fort are numerous 
minor temples, the Durbar Hall of Shitab Khan and store houses. 

The fort has a vast army of minor antiquities, such as images, carvings, inscription 
slabs, etc. They can be seen in the Durbar Hall of Shitab Khan. 

Excavations in the area within the four decorated gateways, the heart of the fort, 
have revealed basements and remains of a Kakatiya temple as well as other antiquities 



m 


of considerable archasological and artistic significance. 

There are a number of temples, dedicated to Narasimhaswami, Padmakshi, and 
Govindarajuluswamij which are of great sanctity. The last named temple is perched 
on a hillock near the Warangal railway station, commanding a grand panorama of the 
entire city and its surroundings. Very beautiful and artistic is the modern Siva temple 
with idols in pure white marble and walls inlaid with coloured porcelain. Other excava- 
tions have revealed prehistoric sites in many places. 

At Adoni in Warangal there is a temple of the Kakatiya period dating from 12th- 
13th century. It has a double compound wall which is extremely massive and represents 
the typical Kakatiya style. The outer wall has three entrances .which are fashioned 
like the gateways that stand in the heart of Warangal fort. There are also two Kakatiya 
inscriptions, one of which is seven feet long and set up on a covered platform while the 
other is located on the tank bund. 


RAMAPPA TEMPLE 

Forty miles from Warangal, in Mulug taluq, is Palampet and here on the shores of 
the famous Ramappa lake are the remains of temples, described as the brightest stars in 
the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan. 

The main temple, which is surrounded by an old enclosure wall composed of large 
stone slabs, has subsidiary shrines on its northern and southern ends. The Temple is 
similar in style and workmanship to its great prototype, the Thousand- Pillar Temple, 
but it is more ornamental. The sikhara of the temple is constructed of large light bricks 
which can float on water. 

The pillars and ceilings are full of ornamentation, and scenes from the Ramayam and 
the Mahabharata are sculptured everywhere. Long panels of figures of gods, goddesses, 
warriors, acrobates, musicians and dancing girls in different poses decorate the outer 
walls while female figures in extremely graceful poses, almost life-like and made of highly 
polished black basalt stone, are arranged in pairs in the form of brackets. They represent 
the Takshisy female spirits, in technical dance poses serving as guards of the doors. 

According to an old Kannada-Telugu inscription fixed inside the enclosure, the 
temple was constructed in 1204 A.D- 


THE TWO SISTERS 

The Ramappa lake is the most magnificent example of old irrigation works construct- 
ed by the kings of Kakatiya dynasty. A reference to this tank is made in an inscription 
at Palampet according to which this lake was constructed in 1213 A.D. when the Kakatiya 
king, Ganapati, was ruling. It has a catchment area of about 82 square miles and four 
main distributary channels. It is capable of irrigating about 9,000 acres. 

The Laknavaram lake is 13 miles from Mulug and regarded as a sister to Ramappa 



122 


lake being named after Sri Lakshmana the brother of Sri Rama. This lake also dates 
from the same period and was created by shutting up three narrow valleys with short 
bunds. It has a catchment area of 75 square miles and three main distributaries irrigat- 
ing about 13,000 acres. 


THE GREAT PAKHAL 

The Pakhal lake is situated in Pakhal taluq, about 32 miles east of Warangal town. 
It was constructed about 700 years ago. It is said that when Pratap Rudra failed to 
pay tribute to the Emperor of Delhi, Shitab Khan, the commander of the emperor’s 
forces, breached the tank and carried away the hidden treasures from the tank bed. The 
lake is formed by a 2,000-yard dam across the river Pakhal at a place where it cuts its way 
through two low hills. 

An inscription of the Kakatiya king Ganapati on the bund in Kannada-Telugu 
praises him as one “ who received homage of Kings of Kase, Kalingas, the Sakas, the 
Malwas, Koralas, the Hunas, the Kauras, Arimardas, Mogadhas, Nepalas, etc.” 

HASANPARTl 

Here is a temple of Venkateswara Swamy and a religious Jatra is held annually in 
which large numbers participate. 


KAZIPET 

The name Kazipet is derived from a domed tomb built by a kazi of this district in 
the early part of the 19th century. Near it are some picturesque rocks, on one of which 
are two hom-like boulders which are visible from the railway train. Three ancient 
temples, situated on the summit of these rocks, contain some interesting specimens of 
early Hindu carving. 

An annual Urs called “ Dargah Urs ” takes place near Kazipet. There are some old 
temples situated on an isolated, rock at Muddikonda, about a mile to the south of Kazipet 
station. One temple is dedicated to Siva and the other to Vishnu. Both are in the 
Dravidian style of architecture with pyramidal sikharas or spires. In the village near the 
rock there are some smaller temples of which the finest is used by Saivites. 

KHAMMAMET 

At Karkonda there are Buddhist and Andhra sites dating from the first to the third 
centuries A.D. In the Karkonda hill there are rock carvings, while remains of two 
dagobas and t\^'^o cells carved out of sandstone rocks represent the Mahayana cult. The 
walls are sculptured. 

At Khammam the 11 th century Hindu fort, is a conspicuous landraark. Built 



123 


900 years ago it was further fortified by French engineers. The fort also contains several 
guns of a much later period. There are also prehistoric sites in various places in the 
taluq. 


MULUG 

Ghanpur in this taluq has a group of 22 temples which are replicas of the famous 
Ramappa temple. The 22 form a square enclosure in the centre of which stands the 
main temple which has porticoes on the east, north and south, while the western side has 
a cell with the broken efHgy of a linga. The mahamandapa is destroyed, but eight human 
and animal brackets similar in style and form to the Ramappa brackets, however, survive. 
These temples are in fact contemporaneous with the Ramappa temple. 


KATAGHPUR 

On the southern bank of the Katachpur tank are two 13th century Kakatiya temples 
built of grey granite. These two are also similar to the temples at Hanamkonda, Ramappa 
and Ghanpur in style and workmanship. 


WARADHANNAPET 

Here an old 18th century fort is believed to have been built by Zafaruddaula. It has 
double walls and some bastions having gun emplacements. 


BHADRACHALAM 

Bhadrachalam is a small village on the northern bank of the Godavari. Bhadra 
was the name of a rishi who was believed to have met Sri Rama at this place, and the 
village was named Bhadrachalam after the rishi. According to a local legend Sri Rama 
was separated from his wife at this place, and it is believed that the temple at Bhadra- 
chalam was built on the very spot where Sri Rama had built a hut for himself. The site 
is the Achala Hill on top of which stands the temple. It is also believed that he crossed 
the Godavari from somewhere at the foot of the hill on his celebrated expedition to 
Ceylon. 

The temple today is more famous for yet another reason. It was built at a cost of 
six lakhs of rupees by Ram Dass or Gopanna, to call him by the name he bore before his 
spiritual enlightenment, who was the nephew of Akkanna, the Prime Minister of King 
Abul Hasan Tana Shah (1654-1687), the last of the Qutb Shahi kings of Golconda. 
The story runs that wlule he was the Tahsildar of the tahsil which included Bhadrachalam 
then, Gopanna misappropriated six lakhs of rupees of the revenue and spent them in 
building this temple. When the matter came to the king’s ears he commanded that 



124 


Ram Dass should be arrested and brought on foot to Golconda. Accordingly he was 
marched to Golconda and was incarcerated in a dungeon in the fort of Golconda, which i'< 
even now pointed out to visitors as Ram Oass’s prison. It is said that Ram Dass grew tired 
of life in prison and wanted to put an end to himself. Sri Rama appeared to him in a 
dream and gave him a clean receipt for the money he had spent in building the temple. 
Tana Shah himself then visited Ram Dass, confirmed the receipt of the money paid to 
him by some unknown person and set Ram Dass at liberty. 

Every year on Sri Rama Navami, the birth anniversary of Rama, thousands of 
pilgrims from all parts of India congregate and attend the principal function of the day, 
namely Kalyanam (marriage of Rama and Sita). On this day small idols of Rama and 
Sita are bathed in sacred waters of the Godavari and decked with resplendent jewellery. 
They are placed in a small gaudily decorated silver palanquin and carried in procession 
amidst scenes of devotion and great enthusiasm to a huge mandapam, close by, capable 
of accommodating thousands of pilgrims. Amidst the assembled congregation and in the 
presence of high officials of the Hyderabad State, the marriage ceremony is celebrated with 
due rites and great eclat to the chanting of Vedic hymns and the applause of the specta- 
tors. Then the pilgrims fulfil their ^ Vows for favours received or solicited. This 
concludes the principal attraction of the Jatra which lasts for nearly a fortnight. 

There is yet another important day, the Mukkoti Ekadasi, when pilgrims from all 
parts of India congi'egate in thousands to see the gods taken out in procession early in 
the morning. This festival lasts for about 10 days. 

Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda, had endowed the temple with a substantial 
annual grant. The temple is now” also getting a grant from Government. 

Bhadrachalam can be reached by road as well as rail from Warangal. From the 
Bhadrachalam Road station, which is the terminus of the branch line connecting the 
Singareni Collieries with the main broad guage system, regular Road Transport Depart- 
ment buses run upto Burgampad, which is the last town in the State on the Madras 
border. The town is a short distance from the Godavari, which forms the boundary" 
between Hyderabad and Andhra Pradesh, and across is Bhadrachalam. The road from 
Warangal to Bhadrachalam is excellent. 





Page 9, first line, read consisting of^ 

Page 1 6, sixth para, second line, 
read Sri Rama for Shri Rama. 


Page 3a, fourth para, first line, 
omit comma after posterity . 


Page 

49 . 

last line, omit II after 

Rudra. 

Page 

56, i 

hird para, third line, read 
said for set. 

Page 

5S. 

last line but one, read 
n^ill for Tf^ilt. 

Page 

68, 

second line, omit comma 
after ISdoore. 

Page 

69, 

first para, first line, omit 
has after and. 

Page 

85, 

fifth para, omit comma 
after Patancheru. 


TITLE & JACKET PRINTED AT 
THE MODERN PRINTING HOUSE, HYD.DN. 



6 


later period. 


MANIKGADH 

The strong fortress of Manikgadh, nearly 1,700 feet high, and situated in inaccessible 
territory, was held by the Gond Rajas of Chanda whose sway extended in the north to 
Nagpur and in the south nearly upto the Godavari. They maintained their indepen- 
dence till the end of the 16th century when they began to give nominal allegiance to the 
Aloghuls, and then to the Marathas, to whom they finally succumbed in 1751 and lost the 
kingdom of Chanda. 

Tradition asserts that the Gond rulers began their rule in the 9th century, though 
this seems to have been based mainly on hearsay. Sirpur was their capital until the 
Rajas transferred it to Chanda in the 16th century. 

Today the Gonds are one of the principal tribes of Central India and retain to the 
full their tribal customs, traditions and manners. Every year Gonds . and other tribes 
gather in their thousands at the annual fair at Keslapur, a sylvan village. 


NIRMAL 

In southern Adilabad, the town of Nirmal, is of historic interest. It seems to have 
been held originally by the Velmas until it was taken in the latter part of the 18th 
century by Mirza Ibrahim Baig Zafruddaula, also known as Dhaunsa, a general of the 
Second Nizam. This nobleman reconstructed the present fortress of Nirmal, the architects 
being Frenchmen in the Nizam’s service. The Saradmahal, which is, now used, as a 
travellers bungalow, is on the site of the old buildings constructed by this chieftain. 
After his death his sons rebelled against the Nizam, who had to march , upon Nirmal 
and reduce the fort. The estate was then confiscated and Nirmal became a part of the 
State. . 

Other places worth seeing in Nirmal are the Mahadeo temple and i.ts sculptures, 
the 17th century Jami Masjid, and Ibrahimbagh with its gardens and fountains. 

Today Nirmal is the home of a fine wood, lacquer ai^^d toy industry which has become 
known even outside India, and a visit to pn& of these cottage industry faqtories, .is im- 
tructive. 



AURANGABAD 


M 

^ » -^ORE people have heard of Ajanta and Ellora than of Aurangabad. But the story 
of this historic district on the Bombay border is almost as interesting as these famous mas- 
terpieces in art and architecture. 

The earliest trace of human habitation in this district was discovered in the shape of a 
paleolithic artifact at Moongi on the left bank of the Godavari. Antiquities of the Stone 
Age, have been discovered at several places in the district but the regular history begins 
area 300 B.C., that is, at the beginning of the early Andhra period. Since then man’s 
genius has continuously exerted itself in fathoming the deepest recesses of the human soul. 
These sublime efforts have manifested themselves in monuments at various places, which 
are permeated with a spiritual glow. 

The Pandavas during their exile are said to have wandered into the Aurangabad 
district, and also to have constructed the massive hill fortification of Deogarh (Deogiri, 
Devagiri), 

The Surpanath hill near Kannad in the district is pointed out as having been the 
residence of Surpanakha whose ears and nose were cut off by Sri Lakshmana. 

The expedition of Alexandar made the Greeks acquainted with India and soon they 
also found the sea route. In those days the Dakshinapatha (Deccan) was under great 
vassals (Mahamandalesvaras), and hereditary land-holders (Poligars), who owed alle- 
giance to the overlords of Tagara and Plithana (Paithan), 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, sent Dionysius into the southern parts of India 
about B.C. 268, and it was then that Tagara became known to the Greeks. It is abo 
mentioned by Arrian that on the arrival of the Greeks in the Deccan ** Tagara was the 
metropolis of a large district called Ariaca, and that Tagara and Plithana were the princi- 
pal marts in Dachanabades.” All kinds of merchandise from throughout the Deccan were 
brought to Tagara and thence conveyed on carts to Barygaza, now Broach. Ptolemy 
agrees with Arrian in placing^ Tagar-a and Plithana to the north of Godavari, but the 



6 


position of Tagara has not been quite identified, although attempts have been made to 
fix it near Daulaiabad (Deogarh), Bhir, Junagar and Gulbarga. 

Plithana is evidently Paithan, as it was about twenty days journey from, or 230 miles 
south of Broach; and if Ptolemy’s latitude and longitude be correct, Tagara should be 
87 miles north-east of Paithan, or near Maiker in Berar. 

The more general statements of Arrian and Ptolemy, however, place Tagara ten 
days’ journey east of Paithan, which would bring it near Nanded on the Godavari. The 
remark in the Periplus that coarse dangaris, and very much fine linen, and muslins of sorts, 
and mallow coloured stuffs, and other merchandise were taken to Tagara from ‘‘ parts 
along the coast,” would seem to show that Tagara was also in connection with the Bay of 
Bengal ; and it is known that even as early as the time of Sakya Muni, Kalinga on the east 
coast was noted for the manufacture of fine muslins. 

On the silver screen of Deccan history then flashed the Greeks (Yavanas), Scythians 
(Sakas), and Parthians (Sahs), and the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalachuriyas and 
Yadavas, till we reach 1295 A.D. when Muslims first arrived in the Deccan — ^Aurangabad 
district being almost the very first to feel their presence. 

Ramadeva (Ramachandra) was the last of the independent. Yadavas (1271-1310 
A.D.), but his Minister, Hemadpanth, is now more well-known than the king himself. 

Hemadpanth, or Hemadri, was not only the author of many books on Hindu law 
and other subjects, but also the originator of the Hemadpanthi style of temple architecture, 
as typified by numerous Hemadpanthi temples in the State today. 

Alauddin Khiiji was the first to invade, defeating Ramadeva in 1295 A.D. when 
the Yadavas became vassals of the Khiljis. Shankara, the last of his line, rebelled and 
was put to death in 1310. 

The romance of Deval Devi and Khizr Khan, which is the subject of Ashiqa of Amir 
Khusro, occurred during this period and it was also during this period that Deogiri came 
under the sway of the Khiljis, though the fort changed hands several times till 1318 when 
it finally became an Imperial stronghold — Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah, Alauddin’s 
successor, himself entering the fort. In Nuh Sipahr, Amir Khusro relates some of the 
incidents of this conquest. 

Aurangabad district was also the scene of the exploits of the famous slave Kafur 
Hazardinari, Alauddin’s favourite who rose to be the Malik Naib of the Khiiji Empire 
and the main power behind the throne. He was murdered in Delhi only 35 days after 
Alauddin’s death. 

The district of Aurangabad twice had the privilege of becoming the seat of a united 
India. The first attempt was made by Muhammad Tughlaq during the first half of 
the 1 4th century, while Aurangzeb spent his last 25 years in the Deccan with Aurangabad 
more or less as the headquarters of his government. 

Aurangabad has been the home of Maratha saints and litterateurs, who initiated 
great spiritual and literary movements. Notable authors whose works to this day illu- 
minate tfte pages of Indian literature arc many. Among the. very first was Salivahana 



whose Kosha was a dictionary consisting 4,00,000 kathas, or Prakrit verses, in compiling 
which he had the assistance of no less than six authors. Among Salivahana^s 
other works are Salivahana Saptasati^ Salihoira and Gajachikitsa, 

Paithan was once a seat of Sanskrit learning. Here also lived for a time the famous 
Maratha saint Gnaneshwar, torch-bearer of a great religious message, who attacked 
the snobbery of Sanskrit pundits and wrote a commentary on Srimad Bhagwad Gita^ 
which has become a masterpiece of Marathi literature. By carrying to the common 
man religious literature that was until then locked up in classic Sanskrit, he created a 
revolution. 

Another Maratha saint was Eknath. He was the first Maratha social reformer to 
launch an open attack on untouchability. Eknath’s grandson, Mukteshwar, was also 
a great Marathi poet. 

In the latter days, Sri Ramdas Swami (1608-1681 A.D.) also travelled in the 
district. He was the spiritual guru of Shivaji, and in Saka 1571 (A.D. 1649) Shivaji 
Chatrapati became his disciple. During his life-time, Sri Ramdas Swami was consi- 
dered an incarnation of Maruti or Hanuman. He was also a Prakrit writer and his Das 
Bodhy Sphui Abhan^, the Sesmas Atmaram and Manachei Slok are well-known. Similarly, 
Amrit Rao (1698-1753) is noted for his katav style of writing which consists of padas of 
60 syllables each. Among his well-known books are Draupadi Vastraharan^ Jivadasa^ 
Durvasa Tatra, Ramchandra Varnan, Ganapati Varnan, and a novel Druvackarita. 

Among the Muslim writers \vere Kazi Shahabuddin Zawali, who was called king 
of sages by his contemporaries, Shahnawaz Khan Samsamuddaula (1669-1751), the 
author oi Mc^atfar-uUUmara, and Gulam Ali Khan Azad (born 1704). 

Aurangabad is, and has always been, famous for its attractive textiles, like Jamiwar, 
Mashru and Kamkhab, well-known to connoisseurs since 1 7th century. 

AJANTA AND ELLORA 

No visitor should leave India without seeing the rock-cut temples of Ajanta and 
Ellora. If he is a lover of the beautiful, the visit will seem to him a pilgrimage, for few 
other sites of past glory enshrine a nobler monument of man’s artistic achievement. 

Ajantais'65milesnorthof Aurangabad city, while Ellora is 18 miles from the city. 
There are excellent facilities for staying in Aurangabad and visiting the two places* Both 
places are too well-known to need any description and the following is only meant as 
hors d'mvre. 

Though cave-architecture is to be found in various other localities of Hyderabad 
State and in other parts of India, yet nowhere such an admirable combination of archi- 
tecture, sculpture and murals is to he seen in such great abundance and excellence 
-as at Ajanta. 

In a beautiful glade circling the Waghara. amidst superb scenery are the caves of 
Ajanta consisting of twenty-four monasteries and five temples^ some of wWch.arc 2,000 



10 


years old. The crescent-shaped rock which overlooks it seems to have attracted the 
fancy of Buddhist monks who selected this site for their cloister^ some three centuries after 
Gautama the Buddha (563 B,G. — B.C.) had founded their order. For about a 
thousand years, their pious hands chipped with chisel and mallet the living rock, fashioning 
lofty and spacious shrines and monasteries. 

It is noteworthy that the Buddhist rock-hewn monasteries were principally excavated 
along the trade routes, where, like the Christian monasteries of the Middle Ages, they 
ministered to the needs of travellers. In former times Ajanta lay on one of the main 
routes from the north to the kingdom of the south and was known as the “ Gateway of 
the Deccan.’* 

This rock-hewn architecture consists mainly of two parts : chaityas or chapels and 
liharas or monasteries. There are twenty-nine of them including five chaityas^ the largest 
chamber hardly less spacious than the auditorium of a modern theatre. Most of these are 
so constructed that a flood of natural light pours into them at some time of the day. Both 
the facade and the inside of these chambers, popularly called caves, are decorated with 
sculptures. On the walls inside are frescoes. The exuberance of sculpture and painting 
leaves an unforgettable impression on the mind. Here Indian art attained the zenith of 
artistic development and revealed a rhythm of life whose robust vitality still amazes us. 
As has been stressed by an English critic, very rarely in the world’s history has there 
come together such true symphony of the three arts — ^painting, sculpture and architecture 
— ^as is so beautifully harmonised at Ajanta. 

Almost all the walls, ceilings, pillars, etc. of all the caves retain traces of frescoes, 
but Caves I, II, IX, X, XVI and XVII possess a stupendous wealth of frescoes, most of 
which represent scenes from the Jataka-stories of Buddha’s previous births in various 
forms — human, animal, reptile, bird and others. 

The antiquity of these caves and frescoes ranges from the 2nd century B.C. to the 7th 
century A.D. Despite the long intervals which separate these paintings in time, there is 
a unity of conception and design which is truly remarkable. These frescoes draw their 
themes from Buddhist folk-lore and relate the many legends woven round the life of 
Buddha. Though the dominant motif is religious, the paintings in their range and 
treatment are in reality an epic of the life of the people during eight centuries. 

Next to the divine and serene atmosphere which hangs round the figures of Buddha 
and Bodhisattavas, garlands of beautiful womanhood knitted round the figures of rajas, 
noblemen and sages and sprinkled haphazard like flowers in scenes painted all over the 
walls, bear ample testimony to the overflowing passion for woman-worship, as next only 
to the gods. 

The caves are on the second terrace and the 250 feet high perpendicular rock where 
they commence is in the form of a semi-circle. The exquisite workmanship of the past 
masters of the chisel and the easel lends an ecstatic charm to the glorious manifestation 
of Natnrc in this beautiful place. 



11 


The Ajanta caves contain several figures of foreigners, such as Persians and Bactrians, 
but the most interesting group is in a painting in Cave I representing the Iranian embassy 
from Khusrav II, King of Persia (A.D. 591 to 628) to Pulakesin II (A.D. 609 to 610) of 
Maharashtra, 

Tabari, the Arab historian, gives clear evidence of the close relations between the 
two kings. The date would be about 625 A.D. 

The drinking scenes are copies of a picture by Indian artists of the same Khusrav II 
and his famous queen, Shirin. 

Cave XVII at Ajanta has a painting of the embassy of Persian king Bahram Gaur 
(A.D. 420-440) to the king of Malwa. 


ELLORA 

About a hundred miles from Ajanta, another crescent-shaped hill was likewise cut to 
make the rock-hewn temples and monasteries of Ellora. Unlike Ajanta, the caves here 
belong to the three great religions of India — ^Buddism, Jainism and Hinduism. The 
earliest caves — Caves I to XII, belong to the Buddhist religion and range from the 
second century B.C. to 7th century A.D. Of these, Cave* X is the only chaitya at 
Ellora, whereas the remaining eleven caves are viharas^ some of which are even three- 
storeyed. The next in order are the Hindu caves — Nos. XIII to XXIX, which may 
date from the 9th to 12th century A.D. Of this group, Cave XVI, the Kailasa, is 
the largest, most elaborate and a miracle of patient human industry. And, according 
to an inscription carved on it, is an achievement of the Rashtrakuta Prince Krishna 
I, latter half of the 8th century A.D. The main temple is totally detached and is 
situated in the middle of a quadrangular courtyard which is surrounded on three sides 
by rows of sculptured galleries containing mostly subjects and scenes from the Saivaite 
Pantheon, while the fourth or western side has the entrance through a portico. The 
Kailasa temple, 164 ft. in length, 109 ft. in breadth and 96 ft. in height, scooped out of a 
single rock,, is lavishly carved and sculptured with life-size animals and images of gods 
and goddesses. No nobler monument exists of Hindu genius, daring and skill. 

Although hewn from the living rock, the Kailasa is intricate in design with ceilings, 
pillars, and galleries full of bas-reliefs. Episodes from the Ramayana and the Makabharata 
occupy two of the walls. The elephant pediment of the main temple is a remarkable 
work of art in itself. The other caves stretch along the hillside on either side of the Kailasa. 

I’he third group, which is exclusively of the Jaina Cult, comprises of caves Nos. XXX 
to XXXIV. These caves are interconnected and their architecture and sculpture appa- 
rently show a downward trend when compared with the two former sets. The archi- 
tecture of these caves is a poor imitation of the great Kailasa" and is also called Chhota 
Kailasa, The sculptures are mostly those of Jainas and Tirthankaras, and Indra and 
Indrahi, with their typical associations, adorn the more important positional in the 



12 


halls and galleries, as such the architecture of these Jaina Caves and their ' Sculptures 
are probably wanting in the all-permeating spirituality, grace and calm of the Buddhist 
caves and the gorgeousness and vigour of the Hindu excavations. 

In almost all the three sets of caves are to be found inscriptions which help in dating 
them, and here and there are patches of frescoes which, on account of their poverty of 
imagination and technique, fall far behind the superb murals of Ajanta. 

Perhaps the most striking impression of the amazing works of art at Ellora is to be 
obtained late in the afternoon when the setting sun shines straight into the interiors, and 
gives the rock a brilliant crimson hue, seemingly bringing to life the colossal Buddhas 
carved in the cells at the back of many of the caves. 

Ellora is probably named after a legendary king, Raja Elu, who is said to have 
founded the village and excavated the Kailasa out of gratitude for having been mira- 
culously cured of a disease he was suffering from. The cure is believed to have been 
effected by the waters of a tank near Ahalya Bai’s temple, close to Ellora. The tank is 
even now known as Raja Elu’s tank. 

Both Ajanta and Ellora can be visited from Aurangabad which is on the Central 
Railway, 233 miles from Bombay and 320 miles from Hyderabad-Secunderabad, Visitors 
from Bombay have to change at Manmad on the broad-guage system of the Central 
Railway and from there proceed by the metre-guage train to Aurangabad. Convenient 
connections for important trains can be had at Manmad both on the outward and on the 
return journey. Visitors from Hyderabad can leave Hyderabad late in . the evening 
and arrive in Aurangabad next morning. An air service also connects Bombay with 
Aurangabad. The State Hotel, Aurangabad, run by the Central Railway, is an excellent 
place to stay. 

Ajanta was known from times immemorial, but unsettled conditions in the Deccan 
precluded popularity as well as proper caretaking. The British came to know of 
Ajanta in 1819, but it was not until Fergusson published his paper on rock-cut 
temples that general interest was fully aroused in 181r3. Subsequently, the Govern- 
ment of India stationed Major Gill at Ajanta who copied a magnificient series of 
frescoes in 1857 which were exhibited at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, London, and 
perished with it in fire in 1866. 

Since then, however, the State has been taking a keen interest in Ajanta and 
Ellora, and from 1920 has taken special sedulous care of both monuments. Professors 
Lorenzo Cecconi and Orsini were employed to repair and renovate the frescoes, 
which work they did with the help of Indian experts. 

Following integration of the State with the Republic of India, both Ajanta and 
Ellora have becomes a charge upon Government of India’s Archaeological Depart* 



13 . 


ment, though the Statens department of Archaeology continues to' act as their agetit. 

AHALYA BAI TEMPLE 

This temple built by Ahalya Bai in the 13th century is famous for its Jyotirlingam* 
The temple is in Kannad taluq not very far from Ell ora. 


ANTUR 

There is an ancient fort at Antur upon the summit of a ghat which projects into Khan- 
desh. Persian inscriptions on pillars, and in a mosque inside the fort, date from 1591, 
1598, 1616 and 1625 — the Nizamshahi period. 


AURANGABAD CITY 

This city has many interesting features for the sight-seer, unique among them is the 
water-supply system built by Malik Ambar, the founder of the city, in 1610. The Pan- 
chakki or water-mill still exists and is a beauty spot. Some of the 17 original under- 
ground channels are still in use. Close to it arc the Dargah of Baba Shah Musafir, the 
spiritual preceptor of Aurangzeb, a mosque and a serai. 

.The Naukhanda Palace and Kali Masjid are other constructions dating from 
Malik Ambar’s time. The palace was enlarged and finished by the first Nizam. 
The Shah Gunj Jami Masjid is the principal place of Muslim worship. This mosque 
and the Chowk Masjid were built by Shaista Khan in the reign of the first Nizam, 
Asaf Jah I. 

Lai Masjid, a later Moghul mosque, is so called because of its red stone architecture. 
Qila Arak is also a Moghul palace, later extended by the Nizams. 

The mausoleum of Rabi’a Daurani, Aurangzeb’s Queen, is the Taj of the South in 
every respect except architectural greatness, and called Bibi-ka-Maqbara. The mauso- 
leum was designed after the Taj Mahal at Agra, and erected between 1650 and 1657. 
It is situated in a beautiful garden laid out with fountains and cypress trees. Portions 
of the tomb are in pure white marble, the remainder being in beautiful stucco plaster 
with very rich specimens of arabesque. 


AURANGABAD CAVES 

Less than a mile north-west of Bibi-ka-Maqbara are three sets of Buddhist caves 
dating from the 2nd to 7th century A.D. They represent both the chaitya and vihara 
types, but while some caves have remained unfinished, others have been damaged by 
land-slides. 

. The caves , may be. generally compared with those of Ajanta in architecture and 



14 


sculpture — althou.^h they have almost been stripped of their frescoes by the inclemencies 
of weather. Cave III (vihara) has a carved frieze representing Sutasome Jataka, 
which is more prominent and pronounced here than that in Cave XVII at Ajanta, 
a fresco. Similarly, the two groups of votaries in front of the Buddha in temple III 
are the best specimens of their kind. The sculptures are life-size and full of life. The 
dresses of the figures are scanty and the coiffeurs and contours of the bodies of the 
female figures, and the matted locks of the male votaries are extremely pleasing and 
realistic. The figure of Padmapani, with eight panels representing Buddhist litany on 
either side of the figure, is superior to any group either at Ajanta and Ellora or any- 
where else in India. Likewise, the dance scene in the same temple, with Tara in 
the middle and three female votaries on either side, may well stand comparison with the 
Nataraja scene in Cave XVI at Ellora. 

Much has been done to repair and conserve these caves and to make them accessible 
by constructing a fair-weather road from tlie Begumpura Darwaza of Aurangabad. A 
flight of steps has been constructed from the foot of the hill and a bridle path has been 
made out on the brow of the hill to communicate with all the three sets of caves, 

BHOKARDAN CAVE 

At Bhokardan there is an underground excavation comprising of chambers, shrines and 
a verandah facing a quadrangular court. The sculptures belong to the Vaishnavite cult 
and the cave may be ascribed to the 8th or 9th century A.D. from the characters of the 
carv^ed inscription in its verandah. As the cave has been hewn out on the bank of the 
Kelna, the waters of the river used to cause constant damage to it, but this has been 
checked by the construction of a strong masonry dam which has ensured the safety of the 
cave. There is also a neolithic site in Bhokardan. 

In the same taluq there are Buddhist caves dating from 6th to 7th century A.D. at 
Ghatotkatch. The Baitalbari fort, also in the Bhokardan taluq, has some remarkable 
fortifications, bastions and inscriptions. 

DAULATABAD 

Daulatabad is Deogiri (Devagiri) of old, and this is where Muhammad Tughlaq set up 
the capital of his Indian Empire after shifting from Delhi. 

The place i$ celebrated as the capital of the Seunas, more commonly known by their 
assumed name of Yadavas, who rose from the position of feudatories of the Chalukyas to 
that of independent princes. Bhillamma I, who threw off allegiance about 1 187, is said 
by Hemadri to have founded Deogiri. His grandson, Singhana, acquired practically 
the whole of the Western Chalukyan kingdom. 

Ala-ud-din Xhllji captured the fort in 1294, and this event marks the first invasion 
of the Deccan by the MusHms. The fort was restored to the Raja: on-hb agreeing 



15 


to pay tribuie, but later expeditions were undertaken on account of default. Dcogiri 
was occupied by Malik Kafur in 1307 and 1310 , and in 1318 the last raja, Harpal, was 
flayed alive. 

In 1338, Muhammad Tughlaq attempted to transfer his capital from Delhi toDeogiri 
and his unfortunate subjects were forced to migrate to the new seat of government. After a 
period of seventeen years, the citizens were permitted to return to Delhi, but most of the 
exiles were so disconsolate that they preferred to undertake the Vv^earisome journey of 
six hundred and ten miles northwards rather than remain in that city. He changed 
•Deogiri to Daulatabad and from here he directed his campaigns against the rajas of 
Warangal. Troubles having broken out in northern India, the king left his new capital to 
suppress them. During his absence, the Muslim governors of the newly acquired provinces 
revolted, and in the confusion which ensued Zafar Khan, the governor of Gulbarga, 
succeeded in capturing Daulatabad, ^vhich remained in the possession of the Bahmanis until 
1526 when it was taken by the Nizam Shahis, to be again wested from them by Akbar, 
After the fall of Ahmadnagar, the Nizam Shahi capital was transferred to Khirki, the 
present Aurangabad, and Daulatabad was retaken to remain in their possession until it 
was captured in 1633 by Shah Jahan’s general. It remained part of the Moghul empire 
until after Aurangzeb’s death, when it came into the possession of Asaf Jah, the first 
Nizam of Hyderabad. 

The fortress is built upon a conical rock, scraped to a height of 150 feet from the 
base. The hill upon which it stands, rises almost perpendicularly from the plain to a 
height of about 2,250 feet above sea level. The outer wall is 2| miles in circumference 
with three lines of fortifications between it and the base of the upper fort. The outer 
wall formerly enclosed the ancient city of Deogiri, but a village is now all that remains. 

The fort has altogether eight gates , and several pieces of ordnance arc still to be 
seen on the bastions. 

An interesting feature of the fort is its underground passage, known as the Andheri,’* 
cut in the bowels of the rock. Here and there in the dark passage are pitfalls designed to 
throw the uninitiated down into the deep moat below. The end of the passage has been 
provided with a large iron grating on which fire used to be kindled at the time of 
invasion in order to make the passage intolerably hot and smoky for the invader. There 
are some unfinished caves cut under the great rock of the fort which from their mode of 
excavation and carving, appear to be contemporaneous with the Ellora caves — ^particularly 
those of the Hindu period. 

Besides the fortifications, the chief buildings are the Chand Minar and Chini Mahal. 
The Chand Minar, which is 210 feet high and 70 feet in circumference at the base, was 
erected by Ala-ud-din Bahmani to commemorate his conquest of the fort. The basement 
is 15 feet high, containing twenty-four chambers and the whole pillar was originally 
covered with glazed Persian tiles of much beauty. It is considered as one of the most stri- 
king pieces of Muslim architecture in Southern India, To the south of this, is a small 



16 


mosque, with a Persian inscription giving the date of its erection as 849 Hijri (1445). 
The Chini Mahal, or ‘ china palace, ’ which was once a building of. great beauty, is 40 
feet to the right of the eighth gate of the fort. It was here that Abul Hasan.Tana. Shah, 
the last of the Qutb Shahi kings, was imprisoned by Aurangzeb in 1687. 

Very little is left of the buildings of the old Hindu period except, the remains of Kali- 
ka-Deval, the middle portion of which was converted into mosque by Malik Kafur. 
Close to this mosque is the Jami Masjid which has Hindu pillars and lintels. This is said 
to have been constructed by Mubarak Khilji in 1313 A.D. and later on the coronation of 
Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahmani, the first Sultan and founder of the Bahmani Dy- 
nasty, was performed in this mosque in 1347 A,D. Firishta has given a graphic des- 
cription of the ceremony. 

Apart from this, there are a clear water spring, known as the ‘ Kaori Tanka an 
elephant pool called the Hathi Houz, Janardhan Swami’s Samadhi, and some palaces 
attributed to Shah Jahan and some others to the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar. 

Daulatabad fort is about one mile from the railway station of that name on the 
road to Ellora, but the fort can be conveniently visited from Aurangabad on the trip to 
Ellora caves by road, as there are no cars available at Daulatabad station. 


JALNA 

Jalna has many old buildings dating from the Muslim period but the only protected 
monument in the town is a neolithic site where cores, flakes and similar antiquities were 
discovered. 

Thirty miles from Jalna station is the^Assaye battlefield where Wellesley defeated 
the Marathas on the fateful 23rd of September 1803, a turning point in the history of 
British India. The battle may be said to have anticipated the fate of the French armies 
at Waterloo because the Maratha army was French trained and staffed with Frenchmen. 

Local tradition not only places the founding of the town as far back as the days of 
the Ramayana but also asset ts that Shri Rama himself lived here for a time. It is said 
that the town was then named Janakpur. 

During Akbar’s time Abul Fizal received the town as a grant and lived here for a 
time as shown by his correspondence with Prince Danial. 


KHULDABAD 

Khuldabad, four miles west of Daulatabad, is a town of tombs and mausoleums and 
here lie burned saints, sovereigns and courtiers, Aurangzeb ; Abul Hasan Tana Shah, 
the last king of Golconda ; Ahmad and Burhan Nizam Shahs, kings of Ahmednagar ; 
Malik Ambar ; Prince Azam Shah ; Khan-i-Jahan; Munim Khan; Bani Begum, great- 
grand-daughter of Aurangzeb ; Asaf jah I, the first Nizam ; Nasir Jung Shahecd; and 



17 


saints Zainul Haq, Burhanuddin and Raju Qattal are those whom history has known 
and whose tombs and graves can be seen even today. 

Also in the taluq are two serais built by Aurangzcb, at Fardapur and Ajanta Serai^ 
a Jami Masjid constructed by Nizani I and the Baradari of Salar Jung 1. 


PAITHAN 

Easily accessible too is Paithan, 35 miles south of Aurangabad, It is beautifully situa- 
ted on the north bank of the river Godavari and is looked upon by the Hindus as a sacred 
place. 

According to tradition Paithan was founded by Brahma who, after having created 
the world, selected this spot on the banks of the sacred Godavari, as his residence. 

Brahma is said to have named his abode Patan ( “ flourishing city ” ), by which 
appellation it continued to be known until the god, becoming jealous of the superior 
attractions of the other holy places which had come into existence after he had estab- 
lished himself at Paithan, changed the name of the place to Pratisthan, a Sanskrit 
term signifying that the city resembled the celestial abode of the gods. 

Fiom this circumstance, it is alleged, the city acquired additional sanctity, which 
enabled it to compete sucessfully with its rivals. These particulars and many others of 
a similar nature are set forth in the Prathistkan Mahatmya^ a legendary account of the 
origin of the city. 

In ancient Pali literature and the records of the Buddhist bhikshus, Tatitthana* has 
been mentioned as the southern terminus of the Savatthi-Patitthana trade-route and des- 
cribed as a flourishing town nestling on the banks of the Godavari. Arrian, the Greek 
traveller, has called this town ‘ Pleithan ’, and Ptolemy, the Egyptian geographer and 
astronomer, travelling in India in the first half of the second century A.D. recorded 
that ‘ Baithana ’ was the capital of * Siro Polomaios % Pulumavi II (138-70 B.G.), and 
the author of the Pmplus of the Erythrean Sea called the town by the name of 
* Poethana,” while Pliny, the Roman Historian of the first century A.D., pays a high 
tribute to this town by stating that it is the glorious capital of the Andhras.” 

In one of the inscriptions of the Pithalkhora Caves and also in the Pratistham Mahi- 
tmya — a legendary account which deals with the events relating to the founding of the 
city — the name of the town is recorded and preserved as ‘ Pratisthana.* In one of 
Asoka’s inscriptions, mention is made of Buddhist missionaries having been sent to the 
‘Petenikas,’ which can be no other than the people of Paithan. 

Known to the ancients by various names, and celebrated for exporting textiles, beads 
and onyx stone through Barygaza (modem Broach), the town of Paithan, was the sub- 
capital of the Andhrabhrityas, a branch of the great Andhra stock. Originally, the 
Andhra kings had their capital at Dhanyakatak (modern Amaravati) near the delta of the 
Krishna but towards the end of the first century A.D. they felt the necessity of having 



18 


another capital in the north-west to protect their dominions from the inroads of the 
northern tribes— the Sakas, the Pahlavas, the Yavanas and others. In this way the king- 
dom of the Andhras was, for diplomatic reasons, divided into two parts, each with a sepa- 
rate capital at Dhanyakatak and Paithan respectively, and the branch of the ruling house 
that established itself at Paithan, adopted the humble title of A^dhrabhrityas — ‘‘the vassals 
of the Andhras.” Later, this dynasty took the independent title of “ Satavahanas.” 

Archaeology has revealed traces of the ancient capital of the Andhras in the form of 
square and round Andhra coins with swastika, bodhi tree and other designs, and of brick 
structures, houses and drains, while terracotta figurines, semi-precious stones and clay 
beads, ivory and shell objects, go far back into the prehistoric phase of India’s history 
and bear affinities to Mohenjo Daro culture and beyond. 

In the fourteenth century the sect of Mahanubhava, devoted exclusively to the 
worship of Krishna, was founded at Paithan. 

Many of the ancient buildings at Paithan are now in ruins, but the modern town 
contains several temples decorated with fine wood carving, and some- of the houses also 
are covered with handsome designs in sculptured wood. 

* The Nagaghat at Paithan is an important bathing ghat on the Godavari. It was 
'built about 1734 A.D,, and consists of a long flight of steps leading down to the river 
between two bastions. Near it are ^o temples, one of which is dedicated to the god 
Ganapati. 

A well in the courtyard of a certain mosque is still pointed out as the well into 
which Salivahana threw clay figures, and thereby hangs an interesting legend. According 
to the most reliable account, some Brahmins used to live in Pratisthana and they had a 
widowed sister. Sesha, the king of serpents saw her one day on the banks of the Goda- 
vari and, assuming hum^ form, married her. Salivahana was born but his uncles aban- 
doned the mother and the child, and she had to make a living through domestic service 
From his childhood this strange and gifted child took delight in clay figures of horses, 
soldiers, elephants, etc., afterwards throwing them into a well. 

Meanwhile, the famous Vikramaditya of Ujjain consulted astrologers and ascer- 
tained the particular man who was going to kill him. He organized an elaborate search 
and found his mortal foe in the person of Salivahana. He marched to Pratisthana with 
a large army and attacked Salivahana, when all the clay figures that Salivahana had 
'thrown into the well came out endowed with life and attacked Vikramaditya’s forces. 
Salivahana was victorious and set up his rule. 

Salivahana’s military conquests made him the supreme ruler of Dakshinapatha and 
•^hc Diade Paithan into a rich and great capital city. 

It was then that he introduced his own era which remains to this day as the Saka 
Era, dating' from the begining of the vernal equinox 79 A.D. {Bilgrami and Willmott). 

The shrine of Shah Maulana Sahib is still in good condition and perpetuates the 



19 


memoiy of one who saved the city from divine wrath. 

Hemadri or Hemadpanth was one of the most distinguished personalities associated 
with Paithan. A Brahmin of the Shukla Yajurved and the Madhiandin Sakha, he 
became Prime Minister of Mahadev, the Yadava King of Deogiri, and afterwards of 
Ramchandrasen his successor. 

Hemadri has left behind many famous treatises such as Chaturvarga Chintamani and 
Ayurvedarasayanay etc., on various subjects. The Marathi character called Mod or 
Modhi is also said to have been first introduced by him. 

Hemadri and Madhava are regarded as the two pillars of the Dharma Shastra. 

PITHALKHORA CAVES 

This set of Buddhist caves, chaityas and viharas, is carved in a ravine surrounded 
by a picturesque forest and is situated in the Kannad taluq of Aurangabad district. 
A seven-mile cart-track, branching off from the Kannad-Outramghat road, leads to the 
site and a circuitous footpath — about 300 yards long — descends down to the caves. 

The caves, as their architecture, carvings, frescoes and inscriptions all indicate, belong 
to the earliest phase of Buddhism and, with their animal and griffin motifs and cross-slant- 
ing designs, resemble the architecture and sculpture of Sanchi to a very considerable 
extent. 

This set of important early Buddhist caves has not so far received the attention which 
it rightly deserves. 


SILLOD 

Anwa village in this taluq has a 12th century temple having a beautiful round ceiling 
on the Mahamandapa with exquisite carvings and sculpture. 

The Tatlan (Vaishagadh) fort is a protected monument in Jinjala village and its 
fortifications, bastions and inscriptions are notable. 




BHIR 


F 

AR from the madding crowd, in the picturesque hinterland of Hyderabad, the 
district of Bhir nestles among rivers, ravines and green hills, where at one time railway, 
telegraph and post office were almost unknown, but where amenities of civilization are 
now available. In Purli, traces of prehistoric culture have been discovered and similar 
artifacts probably await any Leonard Woolley or Carter who may undertake a survey. 

According to tradition, Bhir was called Durgavati during the time of the Pan- 
davas and Kurus, and its name was subsequently changed to Balni; but Champavati, 
Vikramaditya’s sister, after capturing it, called it Champavatinagar. Nothing definite 
is known of its history; but it must have been included successively in the kingdoms of 
the Andhras, the Ghalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and the Yadavas of Deogiri, from whom 
it passed to Muslim kings of Delhi. 

Bhaskaracharya, India’s renowned medieval mathematician and astronomer, and 
author of Lilavati and the Siddhanta Shiromaniy is believed to have made the first reference 
to Bhir. In his works which are dated circa 1 1 14 to 1128 A.D. it is related that Bhas- 
kamcharya was bom in Vijjal Vida, in the Sahya range, which is akin to *^Bced” or Bhir. 

. / . , : / :THB ;TQMB OF THE ROYAL TOOTH 

Bhir "definitely appears in history in 1326 A.D., when Muhammad Tughlaq passed 
through it and changed Champavatinagar to Bhir. It is said by Firishta that he lost 
one of his teeth here, which was buried with royal pomp. This tradition is still prevalent 
in Bhir, and a small tower built on a mountainous track at Ranjani, eight miles south- 
east of Bhir town, is pointed out as the tomb of the royal tooth. 

After the Tughlaqs, the town fell successively to the Bahmani, the Nizam Shahi and 
the Adilshahi kingdoms, and eventually the Moghuls captured Bhir in 1635. During the 
Asaf Jahi period the boundaries of the Suba were always shifting, while great portions 



22 


passed into the hands of the Marathas. 

The battle of Rakshasbhuvan took place in the Bhir district in 1763, on the ban! 
of the Godavari, about 70 miles north-west of Bhir, where Nawab Nizam Ali Khai 
was defeated by Raghunath Rao and Madhav Rao and though Vithal Sunder, the Prim< 
Minister, and Vinayakdas, his nephew, were killed the incendiarism of Nizam A1 
Khan at Poona was partly requited. 

Another historical significance which attaches to Bhir district is that it was the birth 
place of Devi Ahalya Bai, who was born circa 1725 at Ghondhe. Her father, Mankojee 
Scindia, was a patel of the place. Devi Ahalya Bai was born in the State but the 
perfume of her creative, constructive and artistic career has permeated the whole world 
to this day. 

Bhir district has offered a fertile field for thefiree play of poetic genius in Marathi 
literature. Nine poets of the first rank were born in the district, of whom Mukund Raj 
and Dasopant are of immortal fame. Mukund Raj was looked upon as the oldest poet in 
Marathi before the discovery of the treasures of the Mahanubhavi literature. His literary 
brocades are woven out of the warp and woof of philosophy and poetr}% The Vivek 
Sindku^ the Paramamrita and the Panchi Katana are some of his outstanding creations. 
The samadhi of jMukund Raj is at Ambajogai, m a lovely glen which resonates with the 
sweet music of cooing birds and a babbling brook. 

Dasopant is the most prolific writer in Marathi, almost unexcelled by any other 
contemporary, irrespective of language. He also flourished in Ambajogai between 1550 
and 1615 A.D. He was a profound scholar of philosophy as revealed in Srimad Bhagwad 
Gita. He wrote volumes of commentary. A fragment of his works which has been 
published covers 1,080 pages, but the MS could fill 15,000 printed pages. As he could 
not obtain paper he wrote on “ pasodi ” — thick khaddar cloth. One such piece is in 
an excellent condition of preservation and measures 24 by 2| cubits. Lovers of art 
and literature should see that this precious memento is not lost. Dasopant preached 
that activism, Karma Yoga, ’’ was the keynote of the Gita^ and anticipated Lokmanya 
Tilak centuries ago. 


BHIR CITY 

Two temples- in this city, the Khanqah ^d the Khandeshwari Deval, are among 
the many notable features of the city. Though the superstructure!^ still stand in lovely 
surroundings, the worshippers have . lost regard for them. The main temple has lost 
the images of its deity, styled Kanakeshwar, but it is called Khanqah temple. This 
temple is a beautiful island in a tank almost square in plan, and with a fine parapet 
of chiselled masonry on one side. The temple is approached by a causeway of solid 62 
feet masonry. The whole scene portrays the high sense of beauty and cultural values 
of medieval times. 

.. 'Die other temple, known as Khandeshwari Deval, is perched on an eminence 



23 


200 feet away from the town. The original image is missing and a detached sculpture of 
Mhalsa and Khandoba is placed as a deputy for worship. The salient features of the 
temple are the two dipdans which rise to 45 feet. These towers are built on square bases. 
Their girth above the square basement is over 48 feet while at the top they taper up to 
28 feet. 

Among the other monuments of interest are the dargah of Pir Bala Shah, a mile 
and half from the town towards Patoda, which was built in 1778, and the Jami Masjid 
which is in the centre of the town. The masjid has an inscription indicating that it was 
constructed in 1660 A.D. The dargahs of Shahinshah Wali and Mansur Shah are also 
important shrines. 

The water system of Bhir, like all other historical places in the Deccan such as Aurang- 
abad, Poona and Satara, has a khazana baoli or a reseiv’^oir tank from which pipes were 
introduced in the town. 

Road Transport buses running from Jalna, Aurangabad, and Yarmala via Ambajogai 
have made Bhir accessible. 


AMBAJOGAI-MOMINABAD 

This is a twin city with the river Jivanti in between, and the town of Amba on the 
northern bank. 

The Pancham Jainas of Amba are said to be the descendants of a feudatory of the 
Chalukyas, and are now represented by the Pancham Lingayats. In one of the bastions 
of the town is an old temple, built during the reign of Singhana, the Yadava king of 
Deogiri, which contains an inscription dated 1240. A number of ruined cave-temples, 
both Brahmanical and Jaina, are situated in the vicinity. 

Most important is the temple of Ambajogai, on the bank of the Jivanti, which consists 
of a small pavillion in the middle of a courtyard, and a great hall 90 feet by 45 cut in the 
rock. It is supported by four rows of pillars. 

The samadhi of Mukund Raj, the Marathi poet, is also located here. 


DHARUR 

A fort built by Ahmadnagar kings and a mosque built in the Hindu style of archi- 
tecture are prominent features here. The mosque was built by one of Muhammad 
Tughlaq’s generals. 

PURLI 

Purli is the seat of a Swayambhu Jyotirlinga, self-created luminous phallus of Siva. 
There are two others : one at Aundha in Parbhani, and the other at Verul in Aurangabad. 
In the whole of India there are 12 such Jyotirlingas, those at Kasi and Rameshwar being 
the most prominent ones. The main temple was constructed by Devi Ahalya Bai, and an 
inscription on the silver leaf of the door bears testimony to this. At one time Purli was 
the centre of Brahminic learning. 



118 


masiddhi, the Telugu-Chola ruler of Nellore and a feudatory of Ganapati. 

After Ganapati’s long rule of 62 years, came his daughter Rudrama Devi (A.D. 1260- 
1296) in whose reign the Venetian traveller Marco Polo arrived at the famous Andhra 
harbour of Motupalli on the eastern coast and visited the Andhradesa. 

In his account of travels Marco Polo records that Andhra was famous for its diamonds 
and superfine cloth woven with yarn finer than gossamer. 

Rudrama Devi was no effiminate ruler. She dressed like a man, rode on elephant 
and horse and was actually addressed as Rudradeva Maharaj as if she was a man. The 
Yadavas of Devagiri wished to take advantage of a woman on the throne and led an in- 
vasion, but she put up an able defence and repxilsed the invaders. 

Pratap Rudra (A.D. 1296-1323) who succeeded Rudrama Devi was her daughter’s 
son, and is renowned in Sanskrit literature as Vira Rudra. He wrested Kanchi from the 
Pandyas and drove them beyond Tiruchirrapalli. But he had to encounter several in- 
vasions of the Sultans of Delhi who were bent on reducing the Kakatiya kingdom to 
subordination. For over twenty years, from A.D, 1303, Pratap Rudra maintained his 
kingdom intact and according to Hindu accounts successfully resisted the Muslim invaders 
on six successive occasions failing only on the seventh and last occasion in A.D. 1323. 

The Kakatiya kingdom was finally overcome in A.D. 1323 by prince Ulugh Khan 
who later ascended the Delhi throne, in A.D. 1325, as Muhammad Tughlaq. Ulugh 
Khan took Pratap Rudra prisoner, and after taking over the administration of the king- 
dom and appointing necessary officers, he returned to Delhi. While being led as a 
prisoner to Delhi, Pratap Rudra committed suicide on the banks of the Narmada, unable 
to bear the bitterness of humiliation and defeat. 

Originally followers of Jainism, the Kakatiya rulers patronized Saivism from the time 
of Prola II. The Pasupata sect of Saivism in particular gained in strength and numbers 
at this time. Most of these religious leaders were renowned scholars and monasteries were 
centres of learning, and hospitals as well. Great expansion of commerce, especially sea- 
borne trade, was responsible for the increase in the wealth and prosperity of the kingdom 
during this period. The numerous temples constructed by the Kakatiya kings and their 
feudatories contributed to the progress of architecture and sculpture. 

Learning and literature in Sanskrit and Telugu advanced to a high degree of achieve- 
ment, as testified to by numerous scholars and authors of repute. A certain Virabhallata- 
desika is renowned for his encyclopaedic learning {sarva-sastra-visarada) and Aga^tya, 
another great writer and author of Balabharata and Nalakirti Kaumudi in Sanskrit, is often 
identified with Vidyanatha the author of the famous work on Alankara Sastra called Pratapa- 
rudra T %sobhusana. Jayapa, the commander of the elephant- corps of Ganapati, is the author 
of Krttaratnavali and even the renowned Sanskrit poet Sakalyamalla is generally assigned 
to this period. In Telugu there is the excellent popular work Ban^anatha fiaw^iyariamu by 
Gona Buddha Reddi and the equally famous Basava Purammu and Parditaradhya Charitarm 
by Palkuriki Somanatha, all in easy flowing dvipada meter. Bkaskara^Ramayanamu is 



119 


another excellent product of this time. Pratap Rudra himself is reputed to have composed 
a work in Telugu called Nitisara but unfortunately no copy of this work is now available. 

With the disappearance of the Muslim power, about A.D. 1335-36, Andhra split up 
into a number of petty kingdoms, the earliest of which was the coastal kingdom of eastern 
and north-eastern Andhra under Prolaya Nayaka with his capital near Kunavaram on the 
Godavari, not far from modern Bhadrachalam. The next was the kingdom of Telingana 
with headquarters at Warangal recovered from the Muslims by the able warrior Kapaya 
Nayaka who was cousin (son of father’s brother) of Prolaya Nayaka. When Prolaya 
Nayaka died without issue his kingdom was united with that of Kapaya Nayaka. The 
second was the kingdom of the Reddis founded by Prolaya Verna Reddi with its capital 
first at Addanki and later at Kondavidu in Gimtur district. The third was the kingdom 
of the Padma-Velamas founded by Recherla Singamanaya with its capital at Rajukonda. 
The fourth was the kingdom of Vijayanagar founded by Harihara and Bukka under the 
wise guidence and patronage of the great sage Vidyaranya. 

In 1422, Warangal was finally captured by the Bahmani troops, and on the break- 
up of that kingdom it fell to the Qutb Shahis of Golconda. Shitab Khan became the 
Qutb Shahi governor of Warangal. He slowly succeeded in carving out for irim a 
separate principality comprising of Khammamet, Nalgonda and Warangal and became 
independent. 

As lovers of art and literature the Kakatiya kings made a name in history. The 
best specimens of architecture of their age are the 1000-Pillar Temple at Hanam- 
konda, the temple at Palampet popularly known as Ramappa temple and the Warangal 
fort. Of the best irrigation works which have stood the test of time are the Pakhal, 
Ramappa and Laknavaram lakes. 

The name Warangal is a corrupt form of the word “ Orukal ” or Orugallu ” 
which means ‘one stone’. According to some inscriptions in Sanskrit this town was also 
called Ekopala, Ekasila, Ekopalapuri or puram all of which refer to the solitary cliff in 
the centre of the magnificent fort built here by the kings of Kakatiya dynasty and used as 
their capital. 

Warangal or Varankal is also believed to be the Korun Kula of Ptolemy, while 
another name is Akshalingar, evidently the Yeksilanagar or Yeksilapatan mentioned by 
Raghunath Bhaskar in his Aravachan Kosh, 

The city was surrounded by two walls ; the outer one, which is of mud, is said to 
have been 25 miles in circumference. Traces of it are still extant, and the railway 
cuts through it in two places. The inner wall of stone is pierced by four arches and the 
gateways are remarkable for their strength. Both walls date from the 13th century. 

For hundreds of years, both Hanamkonda and Warangal have been renowned for 
their industrial importance, and Marco Polo wrote of Warangal, in the kingdom are 
made the best and most delicate buckrams (cotton stuff) and those of highest price; in 
sooth they look like tissue of spider’s web, There is no king or queen in the world but 



120 


might be glad to wear them/’ 


THOUSAND-PILLAR TEMPLE 

The temple of Hanamkonda, one of the suburbs of Warangal, is considered to be 
one of the finests specimens of the architecture and sculpture of the Kakatiya period. 

Founded by Ganapati the temple is mentioned in Pratap Charitra and, like all 
earlier Ghalukyan temples, it is star-shaped and triple-shrined, the three shrines being 
dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya respectively. 

The shrines have no deities, the pedestals inside being fitted with black basalt lingams. 
But the perforated and ornamented stone screens on the respective doors of the shrines 
contain the efSgies of the three gods. 

The most notable features of this temple are the richly carved pillars and lintels, 
the delicately pierced screens and the most carefully finished sculptures. The black 
basalt Nandi or the sacred bull, in front of the temple, is a splendid specimen of sculp- 
ture in monolith. 

A large black basalt slab, fixed near the eastern entrance and inscribed with Kan- 
nada-Telugu characters, records the events and the date, 1164 A.D., of the construction 
of the temple. 

This record is extremely important inasmuch as it gives a geneological table of the 
builder of the temple, King Ganapati, and contemporaneous events. 


WARANGAL FORT 


King Ganapati began the construction of this fort in 1199 and Rudrama Devi 
completed it in 1261 A.D. A large temple in the centre of the fort which was presum- 
ably under construction, has been recently excavated. The boundary of the original 
temple was marked by four large elaborately carved gateways facing the four cardinal 
points. They bear a striking similarity to the famous gateways of Sanchi, and are very 
imposing to look at. 


The fort has two walls, the inner one being of stone and the outer of mud, surrounded 
by a moat nearly 72 feet wide and 56 feet deep. Traces of a third earthen wall are visible 
near the villages of Thimmapur and Narasimalingudem, six miles south of Hanam- 
konda. According to a chronologist this wall had a circumference of thirty miles, the 
largest of its kind in India. Other notable structures inside the fort are numerous 
minor temples, the Durbar Hall of Shitab Khan and store houses. 

The fort has a vast army of minor antiquities, such as images, carvings, inscription 
slabs, etc. They can be seen in the Durbar Hall of Shitab Khan. 


Excavations in the area within the four decorated gateways, the heart of the fort, 
have revealed basements and remains of a Kakatiya temple as well as other antiquities 



121 


of considerable archaeological and artistic significance. 

There are a number of temples, dedicated to Narasimhaswami, Padmakshi, and 
Govindarajuluswami, which are of great sanctity. The last named temple is perched 
on a hillock near the Warangal railway station, commanding a grand panorama of the 
entire city and its surroundings. Very beautiful and artistic is the modern Siva temple 
with idols in pure white marble and walls inlaid with coloured porcelain. Other excava- 
tions have revealed prehistoric sites in many places. 

At Ailoni in Warangal there is a temple of the Kakatiya period dating from 12th- 
13th century. It has a double compound wall which is extremely massive and represents 
the typical Kakatiya style. The outer wall has three entrances .which are fashioned 
like the gateways that stand in the heart of Warangal fort. There are also two Kakatiya 
inscriptions, one of which is seven feet long and set up on a covered platform while the 
other is located on the tank bund. 


RAMAPPA TEMPLE 

Forty miles from Warangal, in Mulug laluq, is Palampet and here on the shores of 
the famous Ramappa lake are the remains of temples, described as the brightest stars in 
the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan. 

The main temple, which is surrounded by an old enclosure wall composed of large 
stone slabs, has subsidiary shrines on its northern and southern ends. The Temple is 
similar in style and workmanship to its great prototype, the Thousand-Pillar Temple, 
but it is more ornamental. The sikhara of the temple is constructed of large light bricks 
which can float on water. 

The pillars and ceilings are full of ornamentation, and scenes from the Ramayana and 
the Mahabharata are sculptured everywhere. Long panels of figures of gods, goddesses, 
warriors, acrobates, musicians and dancing girls in different poses decorate the outer 
walls while female figures in extremely graceful poses, almost life-like and made of highly 
polished black basalt stone, are arranged in pairs in the form of brackets. They represent 
the Takshis^ female spirits, in technical dance poses serving as guards of the doors. 

According to an old Kannada-Telugu inscription fixed inside the enclosure, the 
temple was constructed in 1204 A.D. 


THE TWO SISTERS 

The Ramappa lake is the most magnificent example of old irrigation works construct- 
ed by the kings of Kakatiya dynasty. A reference to this tank is made in an inscription 
at Palampet according to which this lake was constructed in 1213 A.D. when the Kakatiya 
king, Ganapati, was ruling. It has a catchment area of about 82 square miles and four 
main distributary channels. It is capable of irrigating about 9,000 acres. 

The Laknavaram lake is 13 miles from Mulug and regarded as a sister to Ramappa 



122 


lake being named after Sri Lakshmana the brother of Sri Rama. This lake also dates 
from the same period and was created by shutting up three narrow valleys with short 
bunds. It has a catchment area of 75 square miles and three main distributaries irrigat- 
ing about 13,000 acres. 


THE GREAT PAKHAL 

The Pakhal Jake is situated in Pakhal taluq, about 32 miles east of Warangal town. 
It was constructed about 700 years ago. It is said that when Pratap Rudra failed to 
pay tribute to the Emperor of Delhi, Shitab Khan, the commander of the emperor’s 
forces, breached the tank and carried away the hidden treasures from the tank bed. The 
lake is formed by a 2,000-yard dam across the river Pakhal at a place where it cuts its way 
through two low hills. 

An inscription of the Kakatiya king Ganapati on the bund in Kannada-Telugu 
praises him as one “ who received homage of Kings of Kase, Kalingas, the Sakas, the 
Malwas, Koralas, the Hunas, the Kauras, Arimardas, Mogadhas, Nepalas, etc.” 

HASANPARTl 

Here is a temple of Venkateswara Swamy and a religious Jatra is held annually in 
which large numbers participate. 


KAZIPET 

The name Kazipet is derived from a domed tomb built by a kazi of this district in 
the early part of the 19th century. Near it are some picturesque rocks, on one of which 
are two horn-like boulders which are visible from the railway train. Three ancient 
temples, situated on the summit of these rocks, contain some interesting specimens of 
early Hindu carving. 

An annual Urs called “ Dargah Urs ” takes place near Kazipet. There are some old 
temples situated on an isolated, rock at Muddikonda, about a mile to the south of Kazipet 
station. One temple is dedicated to Siva and the other to Vishnu. Both are in the 
Dravidian style of architecture with pyramidal sikharas or spires. In the village near the 
rock there are some smaller temples of which the finest is used by Saivites. 

KHAMMAMET 

At Karkonda there are Buddhist and Andhra sites dating from the first to the third 
centuries A.D. In the Karkonda hill there are rock carvings, while remains of two 
dagobas and two cells carved out of sandstone rocks represent the Mahayana cult. The 
walls are sculptured. 

At Khammam the 11th centuty Hindu fort, is a conspicuous ^a ndpiark. Built 



123 


00 years ago it was further fortified by French engineers. The fort also contains several 
uns of a much later period. There are also prehistoric sites in various places in the 
aluq. 


MULUG 

xhanpur in this taluq has a group of 22 temples which are replicas of the famous 
Lamappa temple. The 22 form a square enclosure in the centre of which stands the 
lain temple which has porticoes on the east, north and south, while the western side has 
. cell with the broken effigy of a linga. The mahamandapa is destroyed, but eight human 
,nd animal brackets similar in style and form to the Ramappa brackets, however, survive. 
These temples are in fact contemporaneous with the Ramappa temple. 


KATACHPUR 

3n the southern bank of the Katachpur tank are two 1 3th century Kakatiya temples 
)uilt of grey granite. These two are also similar to the temples at Hanamkonda, Ramappa 
ind Ghanpur in style and workmanship. 


WARADHANNAPEl’ 

■iere an old 18th century fort is believed to have been built by Zafaruddaula. It has 
louble walls and some bastions having gun emplacements. 


BHADRACHALAM 

5hadrachalam is a small village on the northern bank of the Godavari, Bhadra 
vas the name of a rishi who was believed to have met Sri Rama^at this place, and the 
ullage was named Bhadrachalam after the rishi. According to a local legend Sri Rama 
vas separated from his wife at this place, and it is believed that the temple at Bhadra- 
:halam was built on the very spot where Sri Rama had built a hut for himself. The site 
s the Achala Hill on top of which stands the temple. It is also believed that he crossed 
he Godavari from somewhere at the foot of the hill on his celebrated expedition to 
Ceylon. . 

The temple today is more famous for yet another reason. It was built at a cost of 
;ix lakhs of rupees by Ram Dass or Gopanna, to call him by the name he bore before his 
ipiritual enlightenment, who was the nephew of Akkanna, the Prime Minister of King 
\hul Hasan Tana S^h (1654-1687), the last of the Qjutb Shahi kings of Golconda. 
The story runs that while he was the Tahsildar of the tahsil which included Bhadrachalam 
:hen, Gopanna misappropriated six lakhs of rupees of the revenue and spent them in 
Duilding this temple. When the matter came to the king^s ears he commanded that 



124 


Ram Dass should be arrested and brought on foot to Golconda. Accordingly he was 
marched to Golconda and was incarcerated in a dungeon in the fort of Golconda, which b 
even now pointed out to visitors as Ram Dass’s prison. It is said that Ram Dass grew tired 
of life in prison and wanted to put an end to himself. Sri Rama appeared to him in a 
dream and gave him a clean receipt for the money he had spent in building the temple. 
Tana Shah himself then visited Ram Dass, confirmed the receipt of the money paid to 
him by some unknown person and set Ram Dass at libci ty. 

Every year on Sri Rama Navami, the birth anniversary of Rama, thousands of 
pilgrims from all parts of India congregate and attend the principal function of the day, 
namely Kalyanain (marriage of Rama and Sita). On this day small idols of Rama and 
Sita are bathed in sacred waters of the Godavari and decked with resplendent jewellery. 
They are placed in a small gaudily decorated silver palanquin and carried in procession 
amidst scenes of devotion and great enthusiasm to a huge mandapam, close by, capable 
of accommodating thousands of pilgrims. Amidst the assembled congregation and in the 
presence of high officials of the Hyderabad State, the marriage ceremony is celebrated with 
due rites and great eclat to the chanting of Vedic hymns and the applause of the specta- 
tors. Then the pilgrims fulfil their ' Vows ’ for favours received or solicited. This 
concludes the principal attraction of the Jatra which lasts for nearly a fortnight. 

There is yet another important day, the Mukkoti Ekadasi, when pilgrims from all 
parts of India congregate in thousands to see the gods taken out in procession early in 
the morning. This festival lasts for about 10 days. 

Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda, had endowed the temple with a substantial 
annual grant. The temple is now also getting a grant from Government. 

Bhadrachalam can be reached by road as well as rail from Warangal. From the 
Bhadrachalam Road station, which is the terminus of the branch line connecting the 
Singareni Collieries with the main broad guage system, regular Road Transport Depart- 
ment buses run upto Burgampad, which is the last town in the State on the Madras 
border. The town is a short distance from the Godavari, which forms the boundary 
between Hyderabad and Andhra Pradesh, and across is Bhadrachalam. The road from 
Warangal to Bhadrachalam is excellent.